List of Old German Professions


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Many old professions do not exist in the present day. These are also not in modern day dictionaries. We published a list with the most common old professions. You may ask us for others, if you do not find the profession you looking for.



English term

German profession






Kürschner; Furriers distinguished from tanners through their knowledge of special techniques they used for preservation and beauty of furs


Belzner, Pelser, Pelzer, Pelzner, Pelzmacher, Pilsmeker, Pilzer, Pölter, Pelzer, Bältzer, Pelzhändler, Corsener, Girschner, Gurschner, Kierschner, Kirschner, Kirsner, Körschner, Körsenwerchte, Körsenwerte, Körsenwerte, Korssenmeister, Körtzener, Körzener, Kürsner, Kürsener, Kurschner, Kursener, Bondmacher, Bontfoderer, Bontmecker, Bundmacher, Bundfutter, Bundfutterer, Buntfutterer, Buntfoder, Buntfoderer, Buntmacher, Buntmaker, Buntmützer, Buntschneider, Buntsnider, Buntwerker, Buntwörter, Fellbereiter, Feller Fellhauer, Fellwerkbereiter, Fellhändler;


other terms including Latin terms:  Fechner, Kulitze, Pellifex, Pellificator, Pellio, Wildwerker







Gärber, Garb, Garber, Garver, Gerb, Gerbel, Gerwer; Bastgerber, Fellgerber

white tanners: Albicerdo, Albicoriarius, Alutarius Cerdo, Erchmacher, Erchmeker, Ircher, Irger, Irker, Löscher, Löschner, Losch, Loschmacher, Schwödler, Weisgerber, Weißgerber;

red tanners: Lauwer, Löber, Löbermann, Lohgerber, Loher, Löher, Lorer, Lohre, Loir, Lör, Löhr, Lörer, Löhermeister, Rotgerber, Rothgerber, Rotlascher, Rotlöscher;

black tanners: Rußfärber, Schwarzgerber;

terms including leather or generally persons dealing with leather: Läderer, Lederer, Lederle, Lederbearbeiter, Lederbereiter, Lederbraiter, Lederdauer, Ledergerber, Ledergerb, Ledertauer, Lederthauer, Ledertäuer, Lederer;

terms giving the kind of leather more precise: Ircher (goat), Rindsschuster (cow), Sämischmacher (chamois), Korduan / Corduan (Korduangerber, Korduanmacher, Corduangerber, Corduanmacher), Juchtenlederer (Russian leather) and Rößler (horse);

other terms including Latin terms: Afstöter, Berker, Cerdo, Coreator, Coriarius, Fläminger, Kumper, Seimtauer, Tauer;

parchment maker (before paper was known- in Germany the first paper mill in Germany is testified 1390 - you have to write on parchment): Bermenter, Bermenterer, Bermter, Birmenter, Bermiter, Berminer, Buchfeller, Buchfellner, Membranarius, Parmenter, Pergamentmacher, Pergamenter, Permeter, Pirmeider, Pirmeider, Pirmenter, Pirmiter, Puchveler;

related occupations: Lohscheller, Lohschelder (person who peeled the bark used for tanning from the trees); Borkmüller, Lohstampfer, Lochstampfer, Lohstößer, Lohstöter, Lohmüller, Lohmöller (producer of the lye used for tanning); Kollerwascher (cleaner of leather coats); Zapfenledermacher, Zappenmader (producer of leather bungs and tubes);





Schuhmacher, Schumacher, Schomacher, Schoomacher, Schuster


shoemaker terms with Schuh (shoe): Freischuster, Schaufert, Schaumann, Schaumäker, Schauwecker, Schoemaker, Schoemakers, Schomaker, Schomann, Schoomann, Schubart(h), Schubert(h), Schubring, Schucht, Schuchter, Schuchard(t), Schuchart, Schucherd(t), Schucherd, Schuchmann, Schuckert, Schuhmacher, Schuhmann (partly also used for shoe seller), Schuhwerk, Schuhwerker, Schuwarte, Schurich, Schuricht, Schurig, Schuricke, Schubbert, Schuffert, Schorcht, Schörken, Schuster;

from Latin Sutor (shoe seamster) and other Latin terms: Calcarius, Coreator, Coriarius, Sauter, Sautermeister, Sitterle, Sutor, Sutoris, Sutorius, Suter, Sutter, Sütterlin;

other terms for shoemaker, often referring to special leather or the kind of shoes: Ansteker, Bantöffler, Cordewener, Corduan, Frauscher, Kintscher, Kinscher, Knieriem, Knieriemen, Korduan, Lersner, Pantoffelmacher, Reuß, Sandler, Tschismenmacher, Tüfelmacher, Tüffelmacher, Tüffenmacher;

shoe cobbler and shoe repairmen: Alputzer, Altbüßer, Altbutzer, Altflicker, Altlapper, Altlepper, Altplacker, Altreis, Altreiß, Altreuß, Altschuhmacher, Altschuster, Bletzer, Bletzler, Flickner, Flickschuster, Lapper, Lepper, Olböter, Oldbuter, Oldkitter, Reutze, Rütze, Schoolapper, Schuhflicker, Schuhlapper;

producer of wooden shoes, clogs, cork maker: Calopedarius, Glotzenmacher, Hölscher, Hultscher, Hülscher, Holzschuhhändler, Holzschuher, Holzschuhmacher , Holzschuster, Klippkrämer, Klippenmacher, Klotzenmacher, Klotzkorkenmacher, Klozenkorkenmacher, Klumpenmacher, Knöspler, Kurkeler, Pantinenmacher, Sohlenmacher, Solemecker, Trippenmacher, Trippenhauwer;

other related terms: Schuhknecht (apprentice shoemaker); Nestler, Clausurmacher, Nüschenmacher, Senkler (shoelace maker); Leistenschneider (maker of lasts for shoemakers); Schuhputzer (shoe-shiner); Ortschmied, Pfriemenmacher (tool smith especially for shoemaker's awls etc.)




      Leather Trades

saddler, producer of harnesses and other leather stuff, leather strap maker: Artifex loricarius, Corrigiarius, Ephipparius, Frenarius, Hamenmacher, Hammacher, Hamacher, Hamecker, Koller, Kummeder, Lorarius, Remenschläger, Remenschlager, Riemenmacher, Riemenschneider, Riemer, Riemschläger, Riemschneider, Riemer, Sattler, Sattelmacher, Sellarius, Stratarius;

bridle maker: Bisser, Gebissmacher, Zaumschmied, Zaumschläger, Zeumer;

purse and glove maker: Ballmacher, Ballonnenmacher, Beitler, Beutelmacher, Beutler, Beudelmaker, Büdeler, Büdelmaker, Buddelmaker, Budelmaker, Bursarius, Chirothecarius, Crumenarius, Fickenwirth, Gantier, Handschuhmacher, Hanteler, Hentscher, Marsuparius, Perator, Säckler, Sackmacher, Seckler, Sekelmeister, Taschenmacher, Taschner, Täschner, Teschner, Teschenmacher, Wetschenmacher, Zonarius;

belt maker: Belter, Cingularius, Clausurmacher, Funicularius, Gertler, Gördeler, Görtler, Gürtelmacher, Gürtler Nüscheler, Nüschler, Remenschläger, Remenschlager, Riemenmacher, Riemenschneider, Riemschläger, Riemschneider, Riemer, Riemler, Zingulator, Zommacher, Zonarius;

whip maker: Beischer, Bettschart, Peitschenmacher



please see also Millers


terms for carpenter derived from zimbar (medieval German for timber): Hauszimmermann, Temmermann, Timmerman, Zimbermann, Zimmerhauer (mainly mining carpenter), Zimmerer, Zimmerling, Zimmermeister, Zimmergeselle (apprentice carpenter), Zimmerknecht (assistant of a carpenter);

other terms for carpenter: Axmann, Axthauer, Axtmann, Bendehler, Bondihler, Carpentarius, Diebler, Dielenleger, Dübler, Karpe, Lignarius, Pfettenhauer, Spanhauer, Spenhauer, Xylocopus;

carpenters outside buildings: Baar, Baarer, Barer, Scepsbarer, Schopper (ship's carpenter); Zimmerhäuer, Zimmerhauer (mining carpenter)

terms for joiner and cabinet-maker with a furniture in the name: Kistler, Kistenmacher, Kistmacher, Kistner, Kister, Cistarius (Kiste - box, chest); Schreiner, Schreinemacher, Schreinemaker, Schreiner, Schrinner (Schrein - chest); Tischer, Tischler, Tischmacher, Tischner (Tisch - table); Stuhler, Stuhlmacher, Stuler (Stuhl - chair); Kästner (Kasten - box); Thorner (Tor- gate, door); Schrankmacher (Schrank - cupboard); Truhenmacher (Truhe = chest);

other terms for joiner and cabinet-maker: Abiectarius, Arcularius, Arcarius faber, Ebenist, Mensator, Panelenmacher, Schatilger, Schnittger, Schnittker, Schnitger, Schnitker, Snitker, Scrinarius, Tafelmacher




      Coach builders

terms derived from Wagen (coach): Wagenbauer, Wagenmeister, Wagenschmied, Wagener, Wagler, Wagner, Wägner, Wägener Wagnermeister, Wähner, Wegner, Wegener, Wehener, Weiner, Weinert, Weyner;

terms derived from Rad (wheel) or other words meaning wheel: Rademacher, Radermacher, Rademaker, Radmacher, Radmaker, Radbauer, Radhauer, Radheuer, Ramaker, Rameker, Radecker, Redecker;

terms derived from Gestell (frame, "chassis"): Stellmacher, Stellmach, Stellmaker, Stellmoker;

terms derived from other parts of a coach: Achsenmacher, Assenmacher, Assemacher, Assemaker and Assenmaker, Axhauer, Axenhauer, Asshauer, Aßhauer, Aßheuer, Esser (Achse - axle); Felgenhauer, Felgenheuer, Felgner, Felgener (Felge - wooden wheel rim); Nabenschmied (Nabe - hub);

jovial terms from krumm (crooked, bent): Krombholz, Krumbholz, Krumbholtz, Krumholz, Krumpholz, Krummholz;

other terms: Carpentarius, Fiaulmacher, Kärcher, Karbender, Kutschenbauer, Rhedarius, Scharrmacher, Schirrmacher, Staterarius, Vetinkmaker





terms borrowed from Bode (barrel): Bätjer, Bettcher, Betcher, Betger, Bettger, Bettker, Betker, Bädeker, Bädker, Bättger, Bättcher, Bitger, Boddeck, Boddek, Boddeker, Böddecker, Böddeker, Bödeker, Bödecker, Böddicker, Bödiker, Bödicker, Bodniker, Böker, Böcker, Bottiger, Bottner, Bötjer, Bötger, Böttcher, Bötticher, Böttiger, Böttger, Böttner, Böttjer, Böttker, Kleinböttcher, Buddiger;

terms with Tonne (ton): Tonnenbinder, Tonnenmacher, Tunnenmaker;

terms borrowed from cupa (Latin for barrel, partly introduced to Germany from the Netherlands as cuyper, cuper): Kuper, Küper, Küppenbender, Küpper, Küppers, Cuiper, Cuyper, Kuiper, Kuyper, Keifer, Keiffer, Kiefer, Kieffer, Kiefner, Küfer, Kuffer, Kufer, Küfler, Küffner, Küfner, Kaufner;

terms borrowed from Fass, the recent term for barrel: Fassbender, Faßbinder, Faßhauer, Faßmann, Faßschlupfer, Fäßler, Fassler, Fässer, Fasser, Fathauer, Fatheuer, Fatmann, Fatthauer, Fattmann, Fatmoker, Vathauer, Vatheuer, Vatthauer, Vattmann, Feßler, Fätteker;

terms borrowed from Schaff, an old High German word for barrel and Schedel, another old word for barrel: Schaffler, Schäffler, Schäfler, Schaffmacher, Scheffler, Schöffler, Schädler, Schedler, Bindschedler;

terms for cooper producing small barrels also mainly derived from different terms for the vessel: Becherer, Bechermacher, Bekerer, Bekemacher, Bekemaker, Bekerwerker, Bekewert (from Becher - cup); Bödenmeker, Büddenbender, Büdeker, Bütenbender, Butgenmaker, Buttgenmaker, Bütmacher, Bütner, Büttemacher, Büttenmacher, Büttenmaker, Büttekenmaker, Büttenbinder, Butticher, Büttichenbinder, Büttger, Büttler, Büttner, Püttner, Pütner, Puttner, Putner, Bittner, Pittner, Weißbüttner (from Bütte = vessel in form of a tub); Kiebler, Kibler, Kübler (from Kübel = bucket, pail); Lägeler, Lägler, Lägelner, Legeler, Legler (from Lägel - small barrel);

often the occupation term includes -binder (a person who binds something), like Altbinder, Fassbinder, Tonnenbinder or Büttenbinder; this terms are sometimes reduced to Binder: Bender, Binder, Pinder, Pinter, Grobbinder, Kleinbinder, Rotbinder, Weißbinder;

other terms for cooper: Bennenmacher, Benner, Biener, Bitschenmacher, Holzbitschenmacher, Becharius, Banzenmacher, Bareler, Beckenmacher, Einleger, Imiträger, Kümmer, Kümper, Royer, Stünschenmacher, Schroder, Schröder, Schröter;

Latin terms for cooper: Cuparius, Doliarius, Ligator, Tunnarius, Viego, Vietor, Vinctor;

stave maker and other assisting occupations: Daubenhauer, Daubenmacher, Daugenhauer, Daugenheuer, Bentmaker, Bentschneider, Bentsnider, Bendheuer, Bendschweicher, Bandhauer, Bandreißer, Bandriter, Bandschläger, Bandschneider, Küperholzmacher, Stabschläger, Staffhauer, Stabholzhauer, Kimker, Kemker




      Wood turners

terms for turner producing vessels through hollowing out ("cooper"): Moltner, Multer, Multerer, Moldenhauer, Holztrogmacher, Jopenhauer;

wood turner with terms including the motion drechseln (to turn on a wood lathe) or drehen (to turn): Beindreher, Blockdreher, Blockdrechsler, Blockmacher,, Blokmaker, Drechlser, Drechsel, Dreher, Drexel, Drexelius Drexler, Dreyer, Holzdreher, Kunstdrechsler, Träxl, Träxler, Traxler, Traxel, Trachsel, Trechsler;

terms for wood turner (and carver) producing derived from different terms for the vessel they produce: Geldenhauer, Geldner, Geltner, Gellner, Gildner, Gillner, Giltner (Gelte - scoop vessel); Tippenhauer, Tippner, Dippenhauer, Deppenhauer (Tippe - scoop vessel); Schoffner, Schuffenhauer, Schopenhauer, Schoppenhauer, Schoppendreier, Schöttelndreier, Schöttler (Schoppe - scoop vessel and ladle); Schüsseldreher, Schöttelndreier, Schöttler, Schettler, Schüttler, Schüßler, Schießler (Schüssel - bowl); Flaschendreher, Flaschendreger, Flaschenträger (Flasche - bottle);

occupation terms derived from terms for wooden measures of capacity: Sesterer, Sisterer, Himpenmacher, Himptemacher, Hemptenmacher, Hempter, Hindemacher, Hemmeter, Malterer, Simmermacher, Summermacher, Simberer, Simerer, Simmerer, Metzenmacher, Metzmacher;

Latin terms for wood turner: Tomeator, Tomio



Smith was always an important profession in rural and urban areas, and in peace and war. It was one of the few really indispensable professions in an agricultural society. There is high diversity in terms (for more details see the special terms). Schmied is the recent correct spelling, but all other spellings may occur in combination with the specialized terms. Main categories (including other weapon makers) are:

smith without any other terms: Schmied, Schmiedt, Schmid, Schmidt, Schmit, Schmitt;

smith (and caster) working with copper or copper combinations like brass (coppersmith, brass smith, brass caster), including kettle maker (but without other tool maker): Abenarius faber, Affengießer, Apengeter, Apengießer, Auricalcifaber, Ausbraiter, Ausbreiter, Beckdrechsler, Beckendrechsel, Beckenschlager, Beckenschläger, Beckschläger, Beggelhuber, Bildgießer, Blechschläger, Blechenschläger, Depperschmied, Döppenschmied, Düppengießer, Geelgießer, Gelbgießer, Grapengeter, Gropengießer, Kaltschmied, Kessler, Kesseler, Kesselhut, Kesselmacher, Kesselschmied, Ketelhut, Ketelhot, Ketelhaut, Ketler, Ketteler, Kettler, Kezzler, Kopersmid, Kopperschmid, Kopperschläger, Koperschläger, Kopschläger, Kößler, Kupferschmied, Küpfer, Kupfer, Küpferle, Lou-Goldschmied, Messinggießer, Messingschläger, Messingschlager, Pottgießer, Pottgüter, Pottschmied, Rotgießer, Rothschmied, Rotschmidt;

farrier and blacksmith: Beschlager, Beschleger, Beschlagmeister, Curschmied, Eisenhauer, Eisenschmied, Fahnenschmied, Grobschmied, Hubschmied, Hufschmied, Kurschmied, Reitschmied, Reutschmied;

smiths making blades of all kind (including other weapons): Artillerieschmied, Axmann, Axtmann, Bardenhauer, Bardenheuer, Bardtenschlager, Bartenschlag, Bartener, Bartenhauer, Bartenschmidt, Bartschmidt, Bartenwerper, Beilschmied, Bilensmet, Blankschmied, Degener, Degenschmied, Dengler, Falcarius, Gladiarius, Happenmacher, Hellebardenmacher, Hippenmacher, Kalchschmidt, Kaltschmied, Klingenschmied, Klinger, Messerer, Messerschneidenmacher, Messerschmied, Sägenschmied, Schaidmeister, Schaidmesser, Scheidler, Scheidner, Scherenmacher, Schermesserer, Scherenschmied, Scheerschmidt, Schlieper, Schwerdtfeger, Schwertfeger, Schertfürb, Schwertfirg, Schwert, Schwerdtner, Schwertner, Segesser, Segisser, Segenschmied, Sensenbrenner, Seissenschmied, Sensenschmied, Sengstschmied, Sigesser;

smiths and other manual workers making hilts and handles for knifes and swords: Beschaler, Creutzschmied, Kreutzschmied, Kreuzschmied, Messergriffmacher, Pfeilschifter, Reider, Schalenschroder;

smith (and founder) making weapons and guns (without swords, rapiers, blades), chain maker, chain smith, armourer, weapon maker, maker of wood stocks for guns: Annularius faber, Armifaber, Armifex, Blatner, Blattner, Blattener, Bleidner, Bombardarius, Bombarbista, Bossengießer, Brünner, Büchsengießer, Büchsenmacher, Buchsenmacher, Büchsenmeister, Büchsenschafter, Büchsenschäfter, Büchsenschäftler, Büchsenschifter, Büchsenschiffter, Büchsenschmied, Bücksner, Bussemaker, Bussengeter, Bussengießer, Bussenmester, Büxenschäfter, Büxenschüffter, Cervillarius, Eisenätzer, Eisenhuter, Etzmaler, Feilträger, Feirschlosmacher, Feuerschlossmacher, Gewehrschmied, Halsberger, Harnascher, Harnischer, Harnischfeger, Harnischmacher, Haubenschmied, Haubenstricker, Helmmacher, Helmschmied, Hubenschmied, Kanonengießer, Kettenmacher, Kettenschmied, Kettner, Kettler, Ketler, Ketteler, Mörsergießer, Panzermacher, Platner, Plattner, Plattenschlager, Plattenmacher, Plattennagel, Plattharnischmacher, Polio, Ringelpanzermacher, Ringer, Ringharnischer, Rinker, Rohrrüster, Rohrrüstmeister, Rohrschmied, Salwirt, Salwirth, Sarwerker, Sarwürker, Sarwerter, Stückgießer, Stückschmied, Stuckenschmidt, Stuckschmidt, Stülpner, Waffenfabrikant, Waffenschmied, Wappenschmied;

crossbow maker: Agittarius, Arcuarius, Armborsterer, Armbruster, Armbrustmacher, Balestermacher, Balistarius, Bogener, Bogenmacher, Bogner, Boltendreyer, Boltendreiger, Bolzendreher, Bolzdreher, Palestermacher, Pogner, Sagittarius, Staheler;

smith making small tools (tong, nail, needle, file, hook, locksmith, spurs): Acicularius, Ahlenschmied, Artifex calcarium, Bretzenmacher, Calcariator, Calvarius, Dürrschmied, Feilenhauer, Feiler, Feilhauer, Feilner, Feulner, Hackenschmied, Hakenschmied, Hamschmied, Kesselhake, Ketelhake, Kleinschmied, Nadelmacher, Nadelmann, Nadler, Nätler, Naetler, Nagel, Nagelschmied, Nagler, Nägler, Nehler, Neiler, Neilschmieder, Noldener, Noldmacher, Nudelmann, Nuldener, Ortschmied, Plattschlosser, Pfriemenmacher, Ringler, Schlesser, Schletter, Schlosser, Schlösser, Schlothauer, Schlotthauer, Schlötter, Serator, Spangenmacher, Spenelmacher, Spener, Sporenmacher, Stecknadelmacher, Tierschmied, Türschmied, Zangenschmied, Zengener, Zeugschmied;

smith working in a hammer mill and owner of steam hammer, smith making metal rods: Blechmeister, Eisenhammerbesitzer, Hammermeister, Hammerschmied, Heischmied, Heuschmied, Malleator, Stabschmied, Stabeisenschmied, Walkmeister, Zainer, Zainschmied, Zainhammerschmied, Zeinhammerschmied, Zeinschmied, Zerrner, Zigensmit;

silver- and goldsmith, gold and silver worker: Argentarius, Aurifaber, Blattmacher, Bractearius, Deaureator, Flitterer , Edelschmied, Geschmeidler, Goldschmied, Golddrahtzieher, Goldschläger, Gulder, Guldner, Kleremacher, Krätzmüller, Pariserarbeiter, Silberschmied, Siberarbeiter, Vergolder;

drillsmith: Bohrschmied, Bohrerschmied, Eberschmied, Naber, Nepperschmied;

pewterer, (tin or pewter) can founder, lead pourer, producer of other metal cans, tinsmith: Affengießer, Apengeter, Apengießer, Bleigießer, Büchsenmacher, Bücksner, Califex, Cantafusor, Dosenmacher, Kandelgießer, Kandler, Kändler, Kannelgießer, Kannengießer, Kannenmacher, Kantengießer, Kendler, Krüsekerl, Pastellator, Pfannenschmied, Plumbarius, Stannarius, Verzinner, Ziengieser, Zinner, Zinngießer;

pot repairer, tinker: Aerarius veteramentarius, Kesselböter, Kesselbieter, Kesselflicker, Kesselring, Ketelböter, Ketelbuter, Rastelbinder (also Schlosser, Schlösser, but mainly other meanings);

tinsmith, tinworker, plumber: Beschlägemacher, Blachschmied, Blachschmidt, Blecharbeiter, Blechdrücker, Blechler, Blecher, Blecherer, Blechmann, Blechner, Blechschlager, Blechschläger, Blechenschmied, Blechschmied, Bleeker, Bleker, Blicksleger, Blickensleger, Blickschlager, Blikslager, Blicker, Bliker, Blickschläger, Blicksläger, Blickenschläger, Fibulator, Flaschner, Fläschner, Fleschner, Flöschner, Glembner, Glembtner, Hydrauliker, Installateur, Klammer, Klampferer, Klampfer, Klampfner, Klamperer, Klämpner, Klempner, Klemperer, Klempert, Klemper, Klemptner, Laminarius, Pflöschner, Salwürker, Salwurch, Spängler, Spengler, Spengel, Spengelin, Stürzner, Sturtzner;

bell maker: Bellenmacher, Glockengießer, Kleinglöckleingießer, Klingelschmied, Rollenmacher, Schellenmacher, Schellenschmied;

other smiths producing special items: Reißzeugmacher, Zirkelschmied (compass-maker); Pflugschmied, Pluger, Schaarschmied, Scharschmied (plow smith); Ankerschmied (anchor);

wire smith and worker: Drahtmüller, Drahtschmied, Gitterleinmacher, Schwartzdrahtzieher;

metal polisher: Acuciator, Acuminator, Cotiarius, Emundator, Eruginator, Gassenschleifer, Grobschleifer, Gropschleifer, Lapsator, Messerschleifer, Samiator, Scherenschleifer, Schleifer, Wetzer;

other terms for smith: Altschmied, Brenneisen, Brenner, Brennknecht, Brennerknecht, Clusor, Eisenschmelzer, Faber, Flachschmied, Flachsmit, Hartschmied, Knopfschmied, Knopfsmit, Kohlschmied, Schmiedemeister, Schmiedeknecht, Schmidtmaier, Schmidtmeier, Stähler, Stahler, Stahlschmied, Stohler, Warmschmied;

other terms for metal worker: Beckenwerchte, Beckenwerte, Beinberger, Beingewender, Dreher, Eisengießer, Fabrikschlosser, Frischmeister, Schlosser, Schwarzgießer, Schweißer, Wagenpfleger;

descriptive surnames for smith: Findeis, Findeisen



Food producing was the main task in ancient time. Classical food trades are miller, butcher, baker and brewer. See also Salt occupations, Farming, fishing, forestry,  food traders, Innkeepers and cooks.



As frequent and important occupation was a miller (Müller, Mueller) often described more precise in the church books, either by the location of the mill, the technique used or the main product:

location: T(h)almüller (miller in the valley), Bergmüller (miller at or on top of a hill), Ober- and Mittelmüller (the miller at the upper and middle mill), Unter- or Niedermüller (the miller lower mill); in church books you can also find Müller der Obermühle (miller at the upper mill), etc.;

technique: Windmüller (windmill operator); Wassermüller, Wasserwieger (water-mill operator);

product: Bokemüller, Flachsmüller (flax miller); Ölmüller, Olmacher, Ölmann, Öhler, Öhlmann, Ölstampfer, Ölschläger, Olearius, Oehlstöter, Ölstößer (oil); Kornmüller, Brotmüller (grain miller); Bohlenschneider, Bortschnitter, Bredtschneider, Bretmüller, Brettmüller, Brettsäger, Brettschneider, Holzmüller, Sägemüller, Sageter, Sagenschneider, Holtschneider, Holzschneider, Holtsnider, Säger (sawyer of timber, lumber); Avenaticus, Gortemaker, Grutarius, Grützmacher, Grützmahler, Gruttemaker (groats, whole-corn, wholewheat); Malzmüller (malt); Waidmüller (plants for dying); Krätzmüller (metal waste); Drahtmüller (wire); Malzmüller (maltster, see Bierbrauer); Lohmüller (see Gerber - tanner); Amidammaker, Amidammacher, Ahmdammacher, Amidamfabrikant (cornstarch, cornflour);

from the old German term quirne, kürne (handmill, treadmill, later also used for water mill): Querner, Kirner, Kürner;

other terms: Aussacker, Bescheider, Molendarius, Molitor, Metzner, Mühlenbursche, Müllerknappe (helper at a mill); Mülscher, Müllergeselle (apprentice of the miller); Mühlenbereiter (official supervising mills); Mühlerbe (mill owner); Müllermeister (master miller); Bannmüller, Bestandmüller



The butcher is still called differently in Germany: Fleischer (Eastern and Central Germany, also the official term), Schlachter (Northeast Germany) and Metzger (South Germany):

variations of Schlachter: Schlächter, Schächterle, Schlechter, Schlachtmann, Feilschlächter, Fleischbeschauer (meat inspector), Pferdeschlächter, Rossschlachter (last two horse butcher);

variations of Metzger / Metzler: Metzker, Metzner, Metzig, Metziger, Metzeler;

variations of Fleischer: Fleissner, Fleischner, Fleischle, Fleischhacker, Fleischhauer, Fleischmann;

Latin terms for butcher without specification: Carnarius, Macellarius, Mactator, Marcellarius, Lanio, Carnifex (last name also means executioner and skinner), Equicida (horse butcher);

butcher for entrails and butcher making brawn: Küter, Kuttler, Kuttelflecksieder, Flecksieder, Kaldaunenkocher, Seidler, Sudler, Köttelwesch, Sulzer, Sülzer, Wämstler, Wenster, Salsuciarius;

smoker of meat: Selcher, Selchert, Silcher and Rauchfleischmetzge;

butcher for sausages: Worster, Wurster, Wurstler, Wurstmacher and Saltzitzienmacher, Fartor, Matiarius;

other terms for butcher: Aushauer, Beinhauer, Knakenhauer, Knochenhauer, Schächter, Stecher; Geisler, Geiseler (last two terms only sometimes used for butcher);

other terms for trader of butcher products: Bluthändler, Smersnider, Fetthake, Fettmengen, Speckverkäufer, Wildbrethändler


Baker belong to the occupations found in almost all villages. In many regions it was forbidden to bake bread themselves due to danger of fire. Therefore a baker was of the few absolute necessary occupations even in the smallest rural villages.

spelling variations of and combinations with the official term Bäcker without further specifications: Beck, Becker, Beker, Böck, and Backmann, Beckmann, Peck, Pecker;

Latin terms for baker in general: Panifex, Pistor and Talemetarius;

more specified terms for baker: bread baker (Brodbäcker, Brodbeck, Brotbäcker, Brotbeck), baker of dark bread (Fastbäcker, Feilbeck, Festbäcker, Kleinbeck, Grobbäcker, Rockener, Rogener), baker of white bread (Losbäcker, Muscheller, Mutschler, Schönbeck, Semmler, Similarius, Weckler, Weißbäcker);

pastry baker, pastry-maker, producers of candies: Crustularius, Cupendinarius, Dulciarius, Feinbäcker, Flader, Konditor, Küchlebäcker, Kuchenbäcker, Lebküchler, Pfister, Placzbeck, Platzbecker, Revenirer, Schönbeck, Stutenbäcker, Süßküchler, Zelter, Zuckerbäcker;

other related terms: Brotprüfer, Brotwieger, Weckwieger (supervisor of the bakery guild, bread examiner); Brodführer, Brotführer, Brothändler, Brothöker, Brotträger (bread trader); Bäckergeselle (apprentice); Bäckermeister (master); Ofener, Ofner



Beer was an important basic food. The right to brew beer was given by the towns, who often demanded high import tax for beer from outside the town. Therefore the right to brew beer was a very good opportunity to earn money for those had the right. In large towns and cities many people had the right to brew beer, but often it was only a second job.

terms for including the word Bier (beer) for brewer, beer hauler and beer seller, beer inspector: Bierbesorger, Bierböther, Bierbrauer, Bierbruwer, Biereigen, Bierfaktor, Bierführer, Bierfuhrmann, Bierkutscher, Bierlader, Biermacher, Bierprüfer, Bierrevisor, Biersieder, Bierrufer, Bierschröter, Berspünder, Berspünder, Bierstecher, Biersticher, Bierfahrer, Biermann, Bierhaake, Bierseller, Bierversilberer, Bierträger, Bierzoger, Mengelbier;

terms for brewer and affiliated occupations derived from brauen (to brew): Bierbrauer, Bierbruwer, Braueigen, Brauer, Bräuer, Breier, Breuer, Breyer, Bruger, Brower, Brouwer, Braumeister, Brauhausbesitzer, Brauherr, Bruwer, Koitbrower, Koytbrouwer, Brauknecht, Brauerknecht, Brawerknecht, Braugehilfe, Brauerhülfer, Schopenbrauer, Schoppenbrauer;

Latin terms: Braxator, Coctor, Cerevisiarius, Polentarius, Praxator, Zythopepta, Zytopoeus;

other terms retaled to beer brewing: Kneveler, Brasiator and Mälzer, Malzmüller, Darrer, Gerbensider, Hefesieder, Grüter, Metpreu, Metter, Seimer;

distiller (of spirits, brandy): Brandewiner, Branntweinbrenner, Brandtweinbrenner, Brandweinbrenner, Brenner, Stoker, Schnapsbrenner, Brennereigehilfe, Brennmeister, Brennknecht, Brennerknecht;, Hefner and Heffner (brandy distiller or vinegar maker), Essigbrauer and Essigfabrikant (vinegar maker);

sugar maker and worker in sugar industry: Brotmacher, Hutmacher, Zuckerimporteur; Zuckersieder





Weaver is one of the most important occupation in the last centuries. It involves very many different regional terms, as well of specialized terms. The basic form is Weber (weaver). As there were many weaver the occupation is more specified, mainly through the type of cloth and or fabric:

terms meaning just weaver or cloth weaver are: Textor, Tuchweber, Wandmacher, Weber, Zacher, Zacherweber, Zachweber, Zeugweber, Zöwere, Zöwerer;

cotton weaver: Baumwollenweber, Baumwollweber, Bombasinenweber, Bomseidenmacher, Bomsidenmaker, Baumseidenmacher, Baumseidemacher, Kattunweber;

fustian weaver: Barchentweber, Barchenweber, Barchetweber, Parchentweber, Parchetweber, Parchner;

linen weaver, canvas weaver (including parts of linen): Bettzichenweber, Bettziechenweber, Bettzeugweber, Bettzeugfabrikant, Breitmacher, Breittuchmacher, Buhrenweber, Bürenweber, Kanefassmacher, Lakenmacher, Lakenweber, Leinenreider, Leinwandweber, Leinweber, Leinenweber, Lewantstricker, Linifex, Pantbereiter, Smalweber, Ziechner, Züchner);

silk weaver: Bombicinator, Felbaweber, Seidenspinner, Seidenweber, Seidenwirker, Seidennäher, Sydennäer, Zindeler;

wool weaver: Roscher, Schrobber, Wobber, Wollenweber, Wollweber, Wüllenweber, Zaiser, Zajemacher, Zeiser;

velvet weaver: Caffamacher, Kaffamacher, Kaffhaarmacher, Samtweber, Trippeler;

weaver of other special kinds of fabrics: Baratmacher, Barratmacher, Boratmacher, Bildweber, Buchstaber, Damastweber, Drillichmacher, Fitzer, Flyer Ginganweber, Golschenweber, Gölschenweber, Kölschenweber, Kölschweber, Kotzenmacher, Kotzmacher, Kotzenweber, Kotzweber, Nufeler, Ochsenweber, Rascher, Raschmacher, Räßmacher, Salunenmacher, Sargenweber, Sargedrömacher, Sayenmacher, Schalaunenmacher, Schallaunenmacher, Schalauner, Schaluner, Schleiermacher, Seitzweber, Sergenmacher, Tapetenweber, Traubenweber, Viererweber, Wolldeckenmacher, Zitzweber, Zwillichmacher;

fuller: Fullo, Tuchwalker, Walker, Welker;

carpet weaver: Aulaeorum opifex, Heidenwerker, Teppichweber;

wool carder, cleaner or preparer are: Carminarius, Kämmler, Karder, Karter, Krempler, Pectinator, Strähler, Straehler, Wollbereiter, Wollkämmer, Wollner, Wollschläger, Wooler;

when weaving industry evolved in the 19th century many specialized terms for weavers in factories, but even im medieval times some of the specifications were known so that they "survived" in surnames: Anspinner, Blättermacher, Blattbinder, Blattsetzer, Blättersetzer, Hilfswebmeister, Hilfsweber, Kammricher, Maschinenweber, Nopper, Patronenzeichner, Plettersetzer, Schnellweber, Schrobelmacher, Spuler, Spoler, Wandrahmmacher, Webmaschinenführer, Webmeister, Webstuhlmacher

other terms are: Butenweber (weaver working outside the guild), Knepsche (weaver's helper), Schwabenweber (weaver in Nürnberg originally from Swabia); Beuteltuchmacher (producer of flour sieves)


      Cloth makers

The basic term is Tuchmacher, but there is a variety of other names for this occupation:

terms for clothworker without any specification (basic term Tuchmacher): Bargmacher, Thuchmacher, Tucher, Tuchmacher, Tuchscher, Zeugmacher, Zauer;

other terms for clothworker: Appreturmeister, Appreteur, Scheermeister, Schlichter (fabric worker who improves the fabric); Tuchknappe (not self-employed cloth maker); Tuchmachermeister (master);

fuller: Grautücher, Lodenwalker, Tuchwalker, Walker and Wüllner;

cloth inspector: Geschaumeister, Gezawsigeler, Lakenwardein, Schauer, Schaur, Schaumeister, Tuchprüfer, Zeugwahrter;

compare: Cloth traders



Schneider is the recent term for tailor, but there is a variety of other terms:

terms for tailor / cloth maker without any specification (basic term Schneider): Blocker, Drapenier, Drapier, Drapierer, Draver, Incisor, Pannicida, Sartor, Scherer, Schneider, Schnider, Schnyder, Schrader, Schroder, Schröder, Schröter, Schröer, Tuchscherer, Tuchschneider, Vestiarius;

terms for tailor / cloth maker making clothes in generell with the term Gewand" (old for clothes) or Kleider (clothes): Gewandschneider, Gewantsnider, Kleidermacher, Wandschneider, Wantsnider;

terms for tailor / cloth maker making special clothes: Culcitarius, Lodex, Mantelmacher, Mäntelschneider, Mäntler, Mentler, Wamser, Wamsler, Wamseller (coats, jackets); Blusenmacher, Hembder, Hemdmacher, Hemdspinner, Indusiarius, Jopulator, Pfaidler, Rockmacher, Scheckeler (blouses, shirts, skirts); Hosenschneider (trousers)

repairer of old clothes: Altflicker, Altgewander, Altwander, Altwender, Altwendter, Altwalker, Altschneider, Bletzer, Bletzler, Flickschneider, Pictaciarius;

other related terms: Brustschneider, Korsettmacher, Kröslerin, Wüllner


      Sewing occupations

seamster: Nähdirne, Näher, Näter, Netor, Neyger, Neyer;

border seamster for decoration: Bandweber, Bordeler, Bordenmacher, Bordenmaker, Bordenwerker, Bordierer, Bortenmacher, Bohrtenmacher, Breisler, Breiser, Briser, Limbolarius, Portenmacher, Posamentenmacher, Posamentierer, Possementierer, Presswerker, Saumbandmacher, Schnürriemenmacher;

lace maker: Schnürer, Schnurmacher, Schnürmacher, Senkler (see also shoelace maker - Schuhmacher);

knitter without specification: Stricker;

stocking knitter: Hasenneger, Lismer, Strumpfnäher, Strumpfstricker, Strumpfweber, Strumpfwirker;

embroiderer (basic term is Sticker): Acupictor, Barbaricus, Scheckensticker, Sericarius, Sticker;

embroiderer using silk: Seidenneger, Seidenspuler, Seidensticker;

(cotton) spinner: Baumwollenspinner, Baumwollspinner, Spinner, Wollspinner;

threadmaker: Fadenmacher, Zwirner, Zwirnmacher;

maker of wooden spindles (distaff maker) and spinning wheels: Kunkel, Kunkelmacher, Rädermacher, Rädker, Rockenmacher, Spindelmacher, Spindler, Spinnradbauer. Spinnrockenmacher;

terms related to spinner: Goldspinner;

hat maker: Barettmacher, Barettleinmacher, Bannismaker, Bannissmaker, Banitzmaker, Bonnettemacher, Bonnitmaker, Bonnitzmaker, Buntmützer, Filter, Filterer, Filzer, Filzmacher, Huter, Hutmacher, Hutschmucker, Hutstaffierer, Hutter, Kappenmacher, Kögler, Kugler, Modistin, Pilearius, Pileo, Putzmacher, Putzmacherin, Scheppler, Strohhutfabrikant;

button maker: Beinknopfmacher, Knaufmacher, Knaufelmacher, Knäufler, Knopfmacher.


      Dyer and bleacher

(cloth) dyer without specification: Colorator, Färber, Ferber, Fläminger, Infector, Tinctor, Tuchfärber;

blue dyer (with the dye from the Waid): Blaudrucker, Blaufärber, Blauferber, Blaufeur, Bocker, Böcker, Waidfärber, Waidgießer, Waidner, Weidfärber, Weidgießer, Weidner;

black and red dyer: Rauschfärber, Rodler, Rotfärber, Rußbrenner, Rußfärber, Schwärzer, Schwarzfärber;

other dyers: Buntfärber (colored), Graufärber (grey for loden), Schönfärber (nice);

bleacher: Albator, Bleeker, Bleker, Bleicher, Bleichermeister, Candidarius;

other related terms: Färbergeselle and Kumper (dying apprentice).


    Building trade



bricklayer, house builder, construction worker, stucco worker, paver (within a house), helper: Bauknecht, Bahmann, Balierer, Ballierer, Baumann, Bauwerker, Beumann, Bodenleger, Buwemann, Buwmann, Caementarius, Cementarius, Esterricher, Estrichmacher, Glutinator, Humpeler, Klaiber, Kleber, Kleiber, Lehmarbeiter, Lehmentirer, Lehmklicker, Lehmverstreicher, Maurer, Maurergeselle, Maurermeister, Murarius, Opperknecht, Polier, Steinworte, Stukkateur, Stuckator, Stukator, Stuckarbeiter, Zementierer;

overseer of city buildings, building contractor, architect, clerks: Aedilis, Architekt, Baumeister, Baukondukteur, Bauconducteur, Bauunternehmer, Bauherr, Bauinspektor, Bauschreiber, Bauverwalter;

stone-layer, bridge builder, road worker, paver: Besetzer, Brucker, Brückenleger, Bruckner, Brückner, Brügger, Bruggenmaker,, Caduceator, Chausseearbeiter, Dammsetzer, Filicarius, Friedmacher, Pflasterer, Pruckmacher, Steinbröcker, Steinbrücker, Steinsetzer, Straßenbauer, Straßenpflasterer, Wegesetzer, Wegmacher, Wegemacher



roofer (terms do not show what kind of roofing he uses): Dachdecker, Tector;

roofer of slate roofs, slater: Schieferdecker;

roofer of shingle roofs, shingle maker, shingle merchant: Scandularius, Schindeldecker, Schindelhändler, Schindelhauer, Schindelmacher, Schindler, Spillmacker, Spindelmacher, Splettstößer, Splittgerber;

fletcher, thatcher, straw cutter: Strohdachdecker, Strohschneider;

roofer with tiles, roofing tilemaker: Dachziegelmacher, Kacheler, Kachler, Kächler, Kageler, Kagelmacher, Kagelmann,Pannenbäcker, Pannenbecker, Stattpannenbecker, Ticheler, Ziegeldecker;

roofer using other roofing materials: Bleidecker, Blydecker.


       Other stone and

       building trades

brick maker: Barnemeister, Bernemeister, Laterator, Tegularius, Ziegelagent, Ziegelarbeiter, Ziegelbrenner, Ziegeleibesitzer, Ziegeler, Ziegelmann, Ziegler;

stonemason, stonecutter: Flintfiller, Lapicida, Lapicide, Rauhmaurer, Steinhacker, Steinhauer, Steinmetz, Steinwirker;

quarry worker: Brecher, Lapidarius, Steinbrecher, Steinbrucharbeiter;

related terms: Cacubarius, Gemmagenum, Kallchborner, Kalchborner, Kälker, Sander, Sandhändler, Sandmann, Steindreger, Steinträger, Steinschneider, Steinbrenner;

stovefitter, stove maker, chimney builder: Clibanarius, Fornacarius, Furnarius, Furslotter, Kaminbauer, Ofenbauer, Ofener, Ofner, Ofenfabrikant, Ofensetzer, Slatmacker, Vurslotter;

whitewasher, painter: Anstreicher, Anstriker, Ausweißer, Behangmaler, Binder, Ipser, Klecker, Maler, Moler, Pictor, Röseler, Stacker, Staffirmaler, Stubenmaler, Tüncher, Weißbinder, Weißbitner, Wißler, Zimmermaler;

wallpaper hanger, wallpaper painter: Tapazier, Tapazierer, Tapetenmaler;

well supervisor, well digger: Aquilex, Borngräber, Bornemaker, Borngeleitsherr, Bornherr, Borngreber, Bornmacher, Bornmeister, Brunnenbauer, Brunnengräber, Brunnenmacher, Brunnenmeister, Brunnenpalier;

maker of wooden and well tubes, maker of well basins: Deuchelbohrer, Ganthauer, Teichelbohrer, Teuchelbohrer, Teuker.


    Other Trades


       Book and

       paper trades

papermaker: Bapirifex, Bappiermacher, Bapyrer, Blattmacher, Büttgeselle, Papierer, Papirer, Papiermacher, Papyrifex, Stampfer, Türkischpapiermacher;

punch cutter, seal maker: Caelator, Eisengräber, Eisenschneider, Grabner, Graveur, Petschierer, Petschaftschneider, Siegelgräber, Sigillgraber, Stempelschneider;

bookbinder and manufacturer of book clasps: Bibliopegus, Buchbender, Buchbinder, Clausurmacher, Funicularius;

printer, typesetter: Bokdrucker, Bokedrucker, Buchdrucker, Buchdruckerfaktor, Buchstabensetzer, Drucker, Impressor, Presser, Schriftsetzer, Setzer;

copper engraver, etcher, copperplate printer: Bilddrucker, Chalcographus, Kupferdrucker, Kupferstecher, Stecher;

pencilmaker, quill penmaker: Bleistiftmacher, Federschneider, Kielfedernschneider, Kreidenschneider, Posenschaber, Stefftenmacher, Stiftenmacher;

archivist: Archivar, Archivarius, Bibliothekar, Bibliothekarin, Bokverwaher;

publisher: Verleger, Zeitungsverleger;

see also Other traders, Artists, Messengers and Clerks.



The occupation names of makers of earthenware derive mainly from the (regionally different) names of the products:

terms for potter derived from Hafen(Swiss, Austrian and South German for pot): Hafner, Haffner, Häfner, Häffner, Häfele, Hefner, Heffner, Hefele;

terms for potter derived from Grope (North German for hollow vessel): Gropper, Gröper, Gröpeler;

terms for potter derived from Pott (North German for pot): Potter, Pötter, Püttjer, Püttker, Pottbäcker;

terms for potter derived from Düppen and Topf (both meaning pot in Middle German and are derived from tief - deep, referring to "a deepened vessel"): Düpper, Dipper, Döppner, Döpner, Depper, Tepper, Töpfer, Töpper, Dopfer, Döpfner;

terms for potter derived from Aul, a word introduced to Southwest Germany through the Romans: Aulenbäcker, Auler, Euler, Eulner, Ohlenmacher, Ulenbecker, Ulner;

other terms for potter: Erdebäcker, Figulus, Kannenbäcker, Kleibener, Krugbäcker, Leimenmacher, Staufer, Steingutarbeiter, Steingutbrenner;

porcelain and ceramic worker: Bossierer, Pfeifenbäcker, Retuschier, Weißdreher;

see also Other stone and Building trades.


      Other trades

ropemaker (Seiler): Bandmacher, Bandmaker, Cordarius, Funarius, Funifex, Kurdelmacher, Reeper, Reifer, Reifschläger, Reifner, Reper, Repschläger, Restiarius, Restio, Röpe, Röper, Sailer, Seelbinder, Seiler, Seilmacher;

broom-maker, brushmaker (Besenbinder), combmaker (Kammacher): Bender, Besemer, Besener, Bessener, Besenbinder, Besenmacher, Besenstielmacher, Bessenbinner, Blattbinder, Borstenbinder, Börstenmacher, Bösselmaker, Bössenbinner, Bürstenbinder, Bürstenmacher, Burstenbender, Burstenmecker, Hornrichter, Kammacher, Kampelmacher, Kämpelmacher, Kardetschenmacher, Kardätschenmacher, Krämpelmacher, Rutenbinder, Strählmacher, Virgulator;

basket weaver (Korbmacher): Bastflechter, Bastspinner, Bennemacher, Bennenmacher, Corbo, Korber, Körber, Korbflechter, Körbler, Korbmacher, Korbwagenmacher, Kratzenmacher, Kürbenzainer, Kürbenzeiner, Mandenmacher, Sortularius, Zainer, Zeiner;

glazier (Glaser), glas dealer, worker in glas industry: Glasballier, Glaser, Gläser, Glasewerter, Glasmenger, Glasverleger, Glaspolierer, Gläßner, Kitter, Scheibenreißer, Vitriarius;

chandler, producer of wax candles (Kerzengießer): Cereficiarius, Gaulichter, Kerzengießer, Kerzenzieher, Lichtzieher, Lychnopoeus, Wachsbossierer, Wachspoussierer, Wachsspinner, Wachszieher;

umbrella maker (Schirmmacher): Parapluiemacher, Parasolmacher, Regenschirmmacher, Schirmmacher, Sonnenschirmmacher, Umbellarius;

clockmaker (Uhrmacher) and maker of other instruments: Auer, Auermacher, Aurmacher, Aurmaker, Großuhrmacher, Kleinuhrmacher, Kompassmacher, Kumpastenmacher, Orleymacher, Seigermacher, Seigerschmied, Sonnenuhrmacher, Uhrblätterstecher, Uhrmacher;

rosary maker (Rosenkranzmacher): Baterleinmacher, Bernsteindreher, Birnsteindreyer, Nosterer, Paterlemacher, Paternosterer, Paternoster, Paternostermacher, Perleinmacher, Rosenkranzmacher;

mirror maker (Spiegelmacher): Catopticus, Spiegelmacher, Spiegler;

sieve maker (Siebmacher): Cribrarius, Rastelbinder, Sibber, Sieber, Sieberer, Siebler, Siebner, Siebmacher;

packet maker (Tütenmacher): Dütenmacher, Gstadlmacher, Tütenhersteller, Tütenmacher;

dice maker (Würfelmacher): Doppeler, Doppenschneider, Würfelmacher, Würfelschneider;

doll maker (Puppenmacher): Boppenmacher, Dockenmacher, Gumpenmacher, Puppenmacher;

wig maker (Perückenmacher): Capillamentarius, Perückenmacher, Zopfmacher;

bucket maker (Eimermacher) and bottlemaker (Flaschenmacher): Ampularius, Buddelmaker, Budelmaker, Eimermacher, Emmerer, Flaschenmacher, Lagantor, Moluckendreher;

fan maker (Fächermacher): Fächermacher, Waderlmacher;

crafts relating to flax: Brechenmacher, Hechelmacher, Hechler;

other crafts: Bohrer, Brelnmecker, Brillenmacher, Formdreher, Former, Formschneider, Hahnmacher, Kribber, Luchtenmacher, Mattenmacher, Matzenmacher, Opifex, Rolladenbauer, Schachtschneider, Schäufeler, Schäufler, Wanner, Wannenmacher;

music instrument maker see Musicians.


   Raw materials


       Mining occupations

Mining was important in Germany and Austria since medieval times and was therefore one of the first profession groups with a high specialization. Most terms start with "Berg-" which means normally mountain, but also pit. Alternative spellings for Berg- might also Berck, Perk, or Perck:

miner, qualified miner, pit foreman: Bergmann, Bergarbeiter, Einfahrer, Berghauer, Hauer, Knappe, Bergknappe, Steiger, Kohlensteiger, Metallarius, Metallicus, Metallifossor, Schichtmeister;

other mining terms: Bergwerkbesitzer, Bergwerksbesitzer, Stollner, Stöllner (mine owner); Bergmeister, Perckmeister (manager of a mine); Schachtmeister (mine master); Markscheider (mine surveyor); Bergingenieur (mining engineer); Bergschreiber, Kalkschreiber (mine clerk); Zimmerhäuer, Zimmerhauer, Verzimmerer (mining carpenter); Siebmann, Sieber (sieve worker in a mine); authorized representative of a mine (Verleger); Bergbote (messenger of a mine); Berghauptmann, Bergherr (head of the regional mining administration); Bergverwalter (mining official, mine administrator);

worker in an lead, iron and steel works: Bleifactor, Conflator, Erzgießer, Flator, Hüttenarbeiter, Schmelzarbeiter, Schmelzer, Zinnflößer.


       Salt occupations

saltmaker, helper at a salt-works: Hallore, Salarius, Sallarius, Salinearbeiter, Salinenknecht, Salzsieder, Soder, Solepumper, Sulengießer, Sülfmeister;

salt merchant: Salifex, Salinator, Salzführer, Salzhändler, Salzkärrner, Salzmann, Salzstößel, Selzer;

saltworks overseer, customs official who had to control the salt: Salzaufleger, Salzfüller, Salzgraf, Salzinspektor, Salzmutter, Salzmütter, Salzsteuereinnehmer, Salzvogt;

nitrate maker: Lasiterer, Salpetergräber, Salpetersieder;

salt carrier, salt loader: Grapper, Salzfertiger, Salzfuhrmann, Salzlader, Salzsender, Salzspediteur, Salzverlader, Scheibler


Guild offices and other

general occupational


master of a guild, chief warden of a guild, leader of a journeyman's association, senior of an organization: Altermann, Ältermann, Ältester, Altherr, Ammeister, Innungsmeister, Innungsobermeister, Jahrmeister, Kerzenmeister, Obermeister, OM, Schaffer, Schencker, Schenker, Vorgeher, Vorsteher, Weckwieger, Zechmeister, Zunftmeister;

guild treasurer, warden of a guild: Bixnmeister, Bixenmacher, Büchsenmeister, Büssenschaffer, Ladenmeister, Püchsenmeister, Zunftpfleger, Zunftschatzmeister;

guild member and other terms related to guild: Ambachtsnote, Ambachtnote, Ambachtkind, Amtsmeister, Gaffelbote, Geschickter, Innungsmitglied, Wetteherr, Zunftbürger, Zünfter, Zünftiger;

craftsman operating outside a guild: Amtsstörer, Bönhase, Butenweber, Butenwever, Freimeister, Freischuster, Hümpler;

journeyman, apprentice: Altführer, Altgeselle, Auszubildender, Beflissener, Bub, Bube, Discipulus, Kleinknecht, Knecht, Lehrling, Wanderbursche, Wanderer, Wandersmann, Worthalter, Züglin;

master: Meister, Meester, Mester, abbreviated M, Mst., Mstr.;

general occupational terms: abgedankter, Ambachtslüt, Angestellter, Antecessor, Assistent, Baas, Beauftragter, Bevollmächtigter, Commissarius, Ephorus, Fachmann, Helfer, Meister, Meester, Obmann, Praester, Rentner, Versorgungsempfänger, Verwandter


Farming, fishing, forestry





Bauer is the main used term for farmer today. It derived from (an)bauen (to cultivate). A lot of alternative spellings and different endings and prefixes can be found, because most of the population were farmer or other people working in agroculture. The exact meaning varies regionally and historically. Sometimes Bauer (and its variations) refer only to someone who owned a full-sized farm (therefore Halbbauer, Viertelbauer and Achtelbauer describe farmer on ½, ¼ and 1/8 of a full-sized farm. But in other times and regions the terms can also refer to tenants of very little farms. Normally every Bauer had his share on the common pastures and woods of the community (Allmende). Instead of Bauer, other terms for (full-size) farmer were used, including Hüfner and Huber.

terms for farmer from bauen (to cultivate, but originally from old German for house and to live) without endings and prefixes except of man: Bahmann, Bauer, Bauerle, Bauerli, Baufeld, Baufelder, Bauhofer, Bauhuber, Baur, Bäurle, Bäurli, Bäuerlein, Beuerlein, Beurer, Beumann, Beuermann, Buhmann, Bumann, Bouman, Bürer, Bührer, Bürmann, Bührmann, Bumann, Baumann, Buwemann, Buwmann, Gebauer, Gehbauer, Gebühr, Kapaurer, Paur, Pauer, Paumann, Peuerle, Pürling, Vollbauer;

terms for farmer from bauen (to cultivate) but with endings and prefixes indicating duties, location, etc. of the farmer: Bauerngelde, Bauerngilde, Ackerbauer, Bergbauer, Brotlbauer, Eigenbauer, Feldbauer, Freibauer, Sandbauer, Schwertbbauer, Erbbauer, Spindelbauer (see alphabetic list for exact meanings);

related terms with "bauen" (to cultivate): Bauverwalter, Baumeister (farm administrator, but originally also famer); Abbauer, Anbauer, Beibauer (farmer on a small new split-off farm or new cleared land); Bauknecht, Bauerknecht, Bauernknecht, Baumeister, Buerknecht (farm-hand); Halbgebauer (owning only half of a farm); Jungbauer, Junggebauer, Junggeburth, Neubauer, Neuber, Neubert, Niebuhr, Niebur, Niebauer, Nieber, Niebert, Nuber (young and new famer); Hundgeburth (farmer breeding or caring for hounds);

Hüfner is the (old) basis term for farmer in some Northern and central German regions: Hüfner, Hufner, Hüfler, Hüfner, Hüffer, Hüfer;

Hüfner is often specified by the size of land: Dreihüfner (3 Hufen), Zweihüfner (2), Anderthalbhufner (1 ½), Hüfner (1), Halbhüfner (1/2), Viertelhüfner (1/4), Achtelhüfner (1/8), or in church books even more precise like Fünfviertelhüfner (5/4) or Dreiachtelhüfner (3/8);

other terms with Hüfner: Althüfner (retired farmer);

the same meaning as Hufe has Hube in Southern Germany, therefore farmers are called: Huber, Hübener, Hübner, Hieber, Hiebner, Hiebler, Hümmer;

terms for farmer with reference to the (main) product: Kabuzenbauer, Hoffmuttersmann, Kuhbauer, Milchviehzüchter, Höpfner, Zielke, Züchter;

terms mentioning to the main working animal: Anspänner, Einspänner, Exner, Öchsner, Pferdner, Schirrmeister;

terms for farmer referring to rights and duties: Ackerbürger, Amtsfreier, Bargilde, Freibauer, Freihäusler, Freisasse, Freistellenbesitzer, Freisitzer, Halbwinner, Kolon, Kolone, Sattelhöfer, Scharwerksbauer, Schaarwerksbauer, Seidler, Vribunde, Zinsbauer;

terms for farmer referring to the time when the farm founded: Aröder, Neuschwander, Neuschwender, Röder, Schwendimann, Kolonist, Reuter, Siedler;

terms for farmer referring to the location: Achtermann, Achtermeier, Bergler, Bergbauer, Echterling, Echtermann, Echtermeier, Hintersättler;

other terms for farmer: Agricola, Arator, Artmann, Bohlsmann, Bolsmann, Bonde, Ackerer, Ackerwirt, Ackerwirth, Landwirt, Stavener, Stellenbesitzer, Villan, Zeller, Rurensis, Rusticus, Hofbesitzer, Interimswirt, Interimswirth, Hausmann, Zeller, Nachbar, Wirt, Wirth (last two mainly innkeeper);

farm administrators (see also 4.1.1 Administrators): Dorfmann, Dörfer, Dörper, Meier, Meyer, Maier, Mayer, Mayr, Massarius, Schaffer, Villicus, Gutsverwalter, Administrator, Baumeister, Gastalde, Kurator, Oeconom, Oekonom, Kästner, Kestner, Köstner, Sedelmeier, Settbur (some of the terms have in addition quite different meanings, see alphabetic list).


       Gardener and other


Gärtner today means only gardener, but in until the early 20th century the main meaning was "farmer with a very little land". A gardener did not have his share of the common land, the Allmende; he owned only a little land, often fenced, on which he cultivated vegetables and fruits, but normally no grain.

terms for gardener (small farmer) with Garten (garden) and another word describing what he mainly cultivate: Gärtner, Weingärtner (vine), Birnengärtner (pears and other fruits), Baumgärtner (trees), Kohlgärtner (cabbage);

terms for gardener (small farmer) with Garten (garden) and another word describing his duties or status: Eigengärtner (cottager with a garden of his own), Dreschgärtner, Dreschermaß (cottager with a garden, who had to work for the manor);

other terms for gardener: Hortulanus, Paradeiser and Tuunker;

terms for small farmer (meaning of terms vary in time and region, but the following terms mainly refer to farmer with only a small farm): Ackermann, Ackersmann, Bergler, Beständer, Beständner, Bergler, Colonus, Eigenlehner, Exner, Gütler, Keuschler, Kleinbauer, Köbler, Kutschner, Lehner, Öchsner, Stäbner, Stäbler, Stäber, Stengelbauer;

other related terms: Bestanderlasser (landlord of a small farm).




Wine grower or vine dresser (they often own the land, but they can be tenants also): Winzer, Amtswinzer, Häcker, Kalterer, Kelterer, Rebmann, Rebmeister, Weinbauer, Weinberger, Weingärtner, Weinreber, Weinzierl, Weinzirl, Wingertsmann or Vinitor;

people working in a winecellar and other related terms: Kalterer, Kelterer (worker in a wine-cellar); Keller, Weingut-Verwalter, Kellerherr (wine steward); Kellereiverwalter (administrator of the winecellar); Kellermeister, Promocondus, Cellarius (keeper of the winecellar); Stieffeler (maker of vineyard stakes); Weinbleicher (wine bleacher, adulterator); Weinsticher, Weintester (wine tester); Keltermacher (winepress maker); Berghold (vineyard owner); Weinleser (grape-picker);

vintner, wine hauler, wine dealer, vinegar merchant: Essigmann, Essigmanger, Essigmenger, Mengwein, Weingroßhändler, Weinhändler, Weinherr, Weinmann, Weinschröter, Weinverlader;

wine innkeeper: see Innkeepers and Cooks.



Bienenzüchter, Imker, Apiarius, Beutner, Bienhalter, Biener, Bienenwärter, Bienenwaerter, Bienenmann, Bienzeidler, Büthener, Mellicida and Zeidelmann, Zeidler, Zeidelmeister.


      Cheese makers and


cheese maker: Käser, Käsebäcker, Käsemacher, Käsmacher, Casier, Laaber, Ziegerer;

cheese maker terms which refer mainly to Alpine dairyman / dairywoman, cheese maker and herdsmen / herdswomen: Senn, Senner, Sennerin, Sentrin, Brenntlerin, Alpmann, Schwaiger, Schwagrin, Schweiger;

milker: Melker, Melcher, Lacticinator, Schweizer (Schweizer can refer to a head, owner or tenant of a diary);

other dairy terms: Holländer (cheese diary owner); Milchmädchen, Stallmagd (milkmaid); Buttermann (buttermaker).


      Herdsmen and grooms

Herdsmen: Hirt, Hirte, Hüter, Hütter, Hutmann (often shepherd), Treiber, Viehhirte, Viehknecht, Viehmagd, Pastor (which normally is priest), Mandrita;

cowherds (male and female) and cattle herdsmen: Kuher, Küher, Kuhhirt, Kuhhirte, Kühhirt, Kuhhirtin, Kühhirtin, Rinderhirt, Rinderknecht, Ochsenknecht and Bubulcus;

swineherds and pigherds (male and female): Säuhirt, Säuhirte, Sauhirth, Säuhirth, Sauhirtin, Säuhirtin, Sauhirthin, Schweinehirt, Schweinehirth, Schweinhirt, Schweinehirtin, Schweinehirthin, Schweinhirtin, Sween, Procarius, Subulcus;

shepherds: Schäfer, Schafhirt, Schafhirte, Schafhirthe, Schafmeister, Schaper, Scheper,Scherer; Bauernschäfer; Bergarius, Fugger, Opilio, Upilio;

horse herdsmen and grooms, equerry: Bereiter, Bereuter, Pferdeknecht, Pferdehirt, Pferdehirte, Rosshirt, Rosshirte, Reitknecht, Koppelknecht, Marpahis, Stuttknecht, Stallbursche, Stalljunge, Stallmagd, Stallknecht, Stallmeister, Wildenhirte, Wildhirte, Wildhirt, Wildhüter, Zechner, Kobelhirt, Koppelhirt, Agaso, Stabularis;

terms for horse grooms which have in addition also quite different meanings: Rosser, Rößler, Rösser, Cammerarius, Anspänner;

Alpine cattle herdsmen / herdswomen (and dairyman / dairywoman): Senn, Senner, Sennerin, Sentrin, Brenntlerin, Alpmann, Schwaiger, Schwagrin, Schweiger;

in some richer regions people regularly from adjacent poor regions searched work during spring, summer and autumn; they were called after the region where they worked: Hollandgänger, Sachsengänger, Schwabengänger.


       Farm hands and


Senior farm-hands: Schaffer, Baumeister (both also with very different meanings), Vorknecht, Großknecht;

other farmhands, farm day laborer and servants: Knecht and Landarbeiter (basic terms), Ackerknecht, Bauernknecht, Bauerknecht, Behandinge, Buerknecht, Buwknecht, Famellus, Gehuster, Hofmann, Kleinknecht, Satellit, Hofgänger, Scharwerker;

female servants and farm maids are: Magd, Altmagd, Ancilla, Famella, Obsequa;

farm-hands with special occupations like harvest hand, mower, cutter, reaper, harvester, picker: Ackerjunge, Ackermann, Ackersmann, Apfelmann, Apfler, Appelmann, Drescher, Erntearbeiter, Erntehelfer, Feniseca, Foeniseca, Futterknecht, Fütterer, Grabaccordant, Gräser, Häcker, Heuer, Inste, Instmann, Kornschneider, Kornumstecher, Landinste, Losfrau, Losmann, Mader, Mäder, Mähder, Mäher, Meder, Obster, Obstler, Säer, Sämann, Sator, Schlotthauer, Schlothauer, Schlötter, Schnitter, Sichter, Tabaksarbeiter, Tabakpflanzer, Tabakspinner, Trito, Wildheuer



The term Pächter (tenant, leaseholder) can refer to any leaseholder, but normally the term is added by another term when no farm tenant is meant (e.g. Mühlenpächter = tenant of a mill; many farmer terms can refer to both tenants and owners; terms definitely meaning farm tenant are:

Erbpächter, Kammerpächter Wiedemutpächter; Häuerling, Heuerling, Heuermann, Kampheuerling, Bestandwirt, Bestandwirth, Halbwinner, Stratener, Arrendator, Konduktor, Reddituarius, Lehner, Wittmer, Kirchmeier.


       Retired farmers

As divers as the terms for farmer are those for retired farmers. Retired farmers often moved either to cottage (on the farm grounds beside the main house or somewhere else) or to a special room in the farm house:

Althufner, Althüfner, Abnahmemann, Abnehmer, Abschieder, Abschiedsmann, Altenteiler, Altsitzer, Altbauer, Ausdinger, Ausgedinger, Ausnehmer, Austrägler, Auszügler, Exkolon, Nahrungsmann, Nahrungsfrau.



The term for "house owner (with a little land for own use)" varies from region to region. The terms for the occupation mainly derives from the different word for cottage:

cottager terms derived from Haus (house): Häusler, Heusler, Heißler, Hüssler, Auenhäusler, Tropfhäusler, Freihäusler;

cottager terms derived from Kate (cottage): Bondenkäthner, Kätner, Käthner, Katenmann, Kathenmann, Eigenkätner, Kleinkätner;

cottager terms derived from Kote (cottage): Köter, Kötner, Köthner, Kötter, Eigenkötner, Eigenkötter, Kleinkötner, Kleinkötter, Cossät, Cossat, Cossate, Cotsass Kossät, Kossat, Kossate, Kotsass, Kothmann, Kotmann, Brinkköthner, Brinkkötner, Straßenkötter;

cottager terms derived from Hütte (cottage): Hüttner;

cottager terms derived from Bude (cottage): Bodener, Bödener, Bödner, Büdner, Büdener;

other terms for cottager: Backhausmann, Brinker, Brinklieger, Brinkmann, Brinksitzer, Kutschner, Spicker, Selder, Seldner, Spikermann, Zusteller



Castrator was an important occupation in former times. Especially pig castrators were much more frequent as in recent times as pigs were herded together in the woods. All pigs who only servered as porker had to be castrated. The terms were regionally different so that a large range of terms evolved:

pig castrator terms derived from Nunne (castrated female pig): Nonnenmacher, Nonnemacher, Nunnenmacher, Nunnemacher;

pig castrator terms derived from Ber (castrated male pig): Bärschneider, Bärstecher, Bärenstecher, Beerstecher, Berstecher, Berenstecher, Beerenstecher, Berschneider, Beerschneider, Bernschneider, Bierschneider, Bersauter, Berzauter, Pernstecher;

pig castrator terms derived from Putt (piglet): Puttschneider, Püttschneider, Pützschneider;

pig castrator terms derived from Galze (castrated pig): Galzer, Gelzer, Gelzleichter, Gelzenleuchter, Gölzenleuchter, Goltzenleuchter, Golzer, Gölzer;

other terms for pig castrator: Begiener, Ferkelbeschneider, Köpfler, Schweinebeschneider, Suwestecher;

horse castrator: Fohlenbeschneider, Pagenstecher;

cock castrator: Kapauner;

other terms for (animal) castrator (not specified): Beschneider, Castrator, Feldscher, Feldscherer, Fotzenstecher, Heiler, Kastrierer, Leichter, Leuchter, Lipper, Lupper, Mohrenstecher, Schöpser, Stecher, Verheiler, Viehbeschneider.



generell terms for fishermen and high see fishermen: Fischer, Fischermann, Hochseefischer, Piscator, Segner, Seigner, Senker, Seuner, Vischer;

fishermen and fish seller specialized on special fish species: Aalfischer, Aalsticker, Aalgarer, Aalräucherer, Schieringer (eel); Allecum lotor, Häringer, Heringer, Heringsfischer, Heringswäscher (herring); Krebisser (shell);

dealer selling fish and fish products: Fischbeinhändler, Fischmenger, Fischverkäufer, Fischweicher, Fischweker, Heringshändler, Kagelbruder;

related terms: Netzmacher, Reusenmacher, Bungenmacher (fish net maker); Agtfischer, Agsteinfischer (amber gatherer); Keiper (captain of a fishing boat); Steinfischer (stones or amber);

see also Seafaring occupations




       Foresters and


forester, forest ranger, forest supervisor, overseer of wood in a forest: Amtsjäger, Forestarius, Forstbeamter, Forstschutzbeamter, Förster, Forster, Forstner, Forstverwalter, Holzgraf, Holzgrefe, Holzvogt, Kreisser, Oberförster, Waldgrebe, Wehrmeister, Wildförster, Wittgrefe;

forest guard, woodcutter, wood worker, forester's helper: Baumhauer, Baumwärter, Bereitknecht, Buschwächter, Forstknecht, Forstwächter, Hegereiter, Schnittger, Schnitger, Schnittker, Schnitker, Waldhauer, Waldhäuer, Waldhüter, Waldschläger, Waldschütze, Waldwächter, Wildnisbereiter, Wildnisbereuter;

gamekeeper: Wildheger, Wildenhirte, Wildhirte, Wildhirt, Wildhüter;

(game) hunter: Fänger, Jaculator ferarum, Jäger, Schießer, Schütze, Spurmann, Suchmann, Venator, Waidmann, Waydjäger, Weidmann, Weidemann, Weydmann, Wildner, Wildschütz;

hunting helper: Ausbraiter, Ausbreiter, Entensteller, Jagdgehilfe, Stuckknecht;

game poacher: Wilddieb, Wilderer;

hunting of and hunting with birds, collecting eggs: Aucellator, Eiersammler, Falconarius, Falconiermeister, Falk, Falke, Falkner, Hachmeister, Vogler

related terms: Tierausstopfer, Waldreiter, Windhitzer;

land clearer: Röder, Reuter


       Charcoal burners

       and similar


char-coal burner: Carbonarius, Holzkohlenbrenner, Kohlenbrenner, Köhler, Kohler;

related terms: Teerschweler, Theerschweler, Tunderkerl, Zundersammler;

pitch burner: Bechler, Harzer, Pechbrenner;

peatcutter: Presstorferzeuger, Stecher, Torfstecher, Torftreter;

burner of wood-ash to prodush potash for soap-producing and for glass-making purposes: Äscherer, Ascherer, Aschenbrenner, Aschenborner, Aschefahrer, Aschenfahrer, Eschenbrenner, Holzaschenbrenner.






       Traders (terms



Here those terms are listes for dealers which do not specifiy the goods. Most terms are for peddler, because this was the most widespread occupation in trading:

terms for merchants including the word kaufen (to buy): Kauffrau, Kaufherr, Kaufhändler, Kaufmann, Käufer, Käufel, Käufler, Käufeler, Koopmann, Kaffl;

terms for (large) merchants including the word handeln (to trade): Großhändler, Händler, Kaufhändler, Kleinhändler, Zwischenhändler, Handelsherr, Unternehmer;

other terms for (mainly) small merchants: Gadenfrau, Gadenmann, Monger, Pfragner, Schlieter, Stößer, Trändler, Winkler, Winkelier;

Latin terms for (large) merchants: Materialista, Mercator, Negotiant, Proxeneta, Redemptor, Venditor;

door-to-door salesman, peddler, trader from backpack (including small dealer): Abenteurer, Abenture, Abentuwerer, Abenteurer, Actionarius, Adventurier, Beikramer, Budiquier, Crämer, Cramer, Dantler, Dendler, Dreutler, Eseler, Feilpeddler, Feilträger, Fragner, Fratscher, Fretschner, Frötschner, Frötscher, Gänder, Gängeler, Gengler, Gremp, Gremper, Grempler, Haak, Haake, Hake, Haken, Hausierer, Hockner, Hodeler, Hödel, Höker, Hucker, Hüxter, Institor, Kamesierer, Knapsack, Kolporteur, Krämer, Kramer, Krämper, Kremer, Krempner, Krömke, Landkramer, Lautfahrer, Merzler, Mezler, Penesticus, Schacherer, Schäufeler, Schäufler, Schaukastenträger, Schotte, Scrutarius, Sonnenkrämer, Sonnenkramer, Stäbler, Stabulier, Stabulierer, Stationierer, Stationarius, Tafelitenkrämer, Tafelitenkramer, Tafelitt, Tagneter, Tallierer, Tändler, Tandler, Tödde, Trödler, Troner, Tüdde, Tütte, Veteramentarius, Wannenkrämer, Wannenkramer;

wholesaler: Großhändler, Pantopola, Fugger, Fuggerer, Fuker, Fucker, Fuckerer, Vucker, Vocker, Focker, Reidemeister, Verleger;

auctioneers: Aucionator, Auctionarius, Auctionsmakler, Auctionsverwalter, Auktionator, Auktionsmakler, Auktionsverwalter, Ganter, Verganter, Versteigerer;

barterer: Büter;

broker, real estate agent: Makler, Sensal, Unterkäufler, Unterkäufer;

terms for sales clerks and similar occupations: Ambachtknecht, Anreisser, Handelsbedienter, Handlungscommiss, Kommissarius, Kommissär, Verkäufer, Komiss, Kommerziant.


       Animal traders

cattle dealer: Viehhändler, Viechhändler;

goat dealer: Ziegenmenger;

hog dealer: Farcher, Schweinehändler, Treiber, Verler;

horse dealer: Equicius, Ferdemenger, Ferdmenger, Pferdemenger, Pferdehändler, Rosskamm;

poultry dealer: Federviehhändler, Ganser, Geflügelhändler, Hühnerträger, Menkeler;

livestock feed merchant: Fuderer, Futterhändler, Futtermenger, Fütter;

other terms: Bracker, Finkler, Finkenfänger, Geisler (sometimes), Gyseler, Tierhändler.


      Food traders

fruits and vetetables: Apfelmann, Apfler, Apfelkramer, Apfelhöker, Apfelmenger, Appelmann, Appelkramer, Appelhöker, Appelmenger, Kappusmann, Obesser, Obsthändler, Obstverkäufer, Pomarius, Weißkohlhändler, Erbsenhändler, Erweißer, Birnmenger, Gemüsehändler, Moshake;

cheese: Käser, Käsehändler, Kesskaiffer Tyropola, Käsehage;

eggs: Ayrer, Eierhändler, Eiermenger;

grain and garin fruit: Annonarius, Bierer, Bladarius, Fruchthändler, Frumentarius, Hirsemann, Körner, Kornfruchthändler, Kornführer, Kornhändler, Kornmann, Kreisler, Schrannengast;

flour: Melber, Melreder, Mehlhändler, Mehlmann;

herbs: Aromatopola, Condimentarius, Gewürzkrämer, Imber, Ingwer, Reichkrämer, Speciarius, Spezereihändler, Spezereikrämer, Spezereikramer, Wurzkrämer, Wurzkramer, Wurzler, Wurzmann, Wurzmenger;

oil (maker and dealer): Nüsseler, Nüssler, Oleymann, Ölmann, Öhler, Öhlmann, Oehlstöter, Ölstößer;

other products: Barmhändler, Brasilholzstößer, Brasilienholzhauer, Senfer;

grocer: Kolonialwarenhändler, Lebensmittelhändler Nahrungsmittelhändler;

meat and sausages see Butchers, Bakers, Brewers, Salt occupations, Wine-growing occupations


       Cloth traders

cloth merchant: Gewänder, Kleiderhändler, Tucher, Tuchhändler, Wandkramer, Watmanger, Waytmenger, Wendkrämer, Wendkramer, Wollhändler, Zeugkrämer, Zeugkramer;

haberdasher, drygoods merchant: Bijouteriehändler, Brämelmacher, Galanteriewarenhändler, Komplethändler, Kurzwarenhändler, Nadler, Schnittwarenhändler, Tellrer;

canvas and linen merchants: Briechler, Lauenstreicher , Leinwandhändler, Wäschehändler;

dealer in used clothings: Altwander, Altwender, Altwendter, Kleiderhocker and Kleyderhocker;

other clothes: Schleierverkäufer, Stirnstoßer (veil merchant); Spitzenhändler, Bandhändler, Bänderkrämer (lace and ribbon dealer);

other terms: Wattmann, Schlachtwanter (cloth wholesaler); Buntendrager, Feitler (door-to-door cloth peddlers);

hat trader (see also Sewing occupations): Baretter, Barettkramer;

shoe seller see Shoemaker


       Other traders

books, newspaper, pictures: Bibliopola, Bokefohrer, Boickforer, Briefkramer, Bücheraltreiß, Buchführer, Buchhändler, Bilderhändler, Briefdreger, Brieftrager, Gotzenträger, Götzenträger, Kunsthändler, Librarius, Prieffkramer, Zeitungshändler;

knifes, cutlery: Klingenkaufmann, Messerträger;

earthenware, pots: Hafenreffer, Krogmann, Krugmann, Krugelmann, Steingutwarenhändler, Topfhändler;

flax and flax waste dealer: Flachshändler, Flachsmenger, Kauderer, Kuderer, Linarius, Werghändler;

iron: Eisenhändler, Eisenmenger, Gerillhändler, Stalmenger;

timber trader, wood merchant: Holzhändler, Holzmann, Holzmenger, Krummholzhändler, Xylopola, Witmenger;

jewel merchant (including jewel and amber polisher and related occupations): Abentürer, Achatschleifer, Agtschleifer, Bernsteinschleifer, Bijoutier, Bijouteriehändler, Demantschneider, Diamantschleifer, Diamantschneider, Ebentuerer, Edelsteinhändler, Edelsteinwürker, Galanteriearbeiter, Galanteriewarenhändler, Gemmarius, Granatrosenschneider, Granatschneider, Granatschleifer, Granatsetzer, Joellarius, Juwelier, Obentürer, Ofentürer, Pariserarbeiter, Steinschneider (also Schmied -smith);

second-hand dealer, rag-and-bone dealer: Althändler, Hodeler, Hödel, Lumpenhändler (see also Händler: Kleidung);

people working at markets: Aufdinger, Büdner, Büdener, Fasszieher, Fiarant, Gadamer, Gademer, Jahrmarktshändler, Marktaufseher, Marktschreier, Scharnemann, Spetter, Staheler, Storger, Unterbeseher, Viktualienhändler;

other agricultural good dealer: Blüthner, Blütner, Strohmenger, Tabagist, Tabakist;

other dealer: Bettfedernhändler, Brüchler, Greshake, Rorenschieber;

terms for clerks and sales staff: Buchhalter, Buchführer, Kassengehilfe, Kassengehülfe, Kassierer, Kassier, Kontorbedienter, Kontorist





physician generell, with or without university degree: Arzt, Arste;

physician, doctor (mainly with university degree): Aliptes, Armenarzt, Amtsarzt, Archetra, Archiater, Archigenes, Chirurg, Chirurgus, Chyrurgus, Doctor, Doktor, Impfarzt, Leibarzt, Medicus, Physikus, Regimentsarzt;

physician (mainly without university degree): Bruchschneider, Brucharzt, Sundmacher, Sundmaker, Sundmäker, Tonsor, Wundarzt, Wundartzneichirurg, Wundartzneychirurg;

dentist: Bisser, Dentist, Edentarius, Reisenzahn, Zahnarzt, Zahnbrecher, Zahneisen;

other specialists: Augenarzt, Occlist (eye specialist); Steinschneider (gall-stone physician); Kinderarzt (pediatrician); Totenbeschauer (coroner);

veterinarian: Rossarzt, Thierarzt, Tierarzt, Veterinär, Veterinärarzt;

healer: Heiler, Heilkundiger, Kasperer;

terms realted to pestilence and epidemics: Blattervater, Pestilentiarius, Seuchenhausverwalter;

other terms for physician: Feldscher, Feldscherer, Krankenvater;

pharmacist, herbs druggist and peddler of pills: Alchimist, Apotheker, Apothecarius, Apteker, Apothekengehilfe, Butendreger, Chymiater, Herbarius, Kräutler, Kräutermann, Krautkrämer, Krautkramer, Krudener, Krüdener, Pharmacopola, Quacksalber, Salbenhändler, Salbenmacher, Salbenreiber, Statzauner, Tabulettkrämer, Tabulettkramer, Theriakskrämer, Unguentarius.


       Midwifes and nurses

midwife: Bademutter, Bademuhme, Bademöhme, Bademöhme, Bamutter, Fräle, Hebamme, Kindelmutter, Kindsmutter, Krammoder, Obstetrix, Puerpera, Wartfrau, Wehenmutter, Wehfrau, Wehmutter, Weisemutter, Weißfrau, weise Frau, Wochenpflegerin, Wöchnerin;

wet nurse: Amme, Nutrix, Schenckjunfer, Schenkjunfer;

nurses: Kinderschwester, Krankenpfleger, Krankenschwester, Krankenwärter, Spitalpfleger, Wahrsfrau, Wahrsmann;

assistants at a birth, obstetrician: Accoucheur, Geburtshelfer, Kindervater



Barber (in the sense of bathhouse operator or owner) were a widespread occupation who served also as healer and hairdresser:

terms for barber (bathhouse operator or owner) derived from Bad (bath) or Badstube (bath room): Baader, Bader, Badener, Bäderknecht, Badgießer, Baderschneider, Badestübner, Badstüber, Badreiber, Bater, Bastöver, Bathstovere, Badstuber, Badstubenbesitzer, Batstover, Batstuber, Beder, Bedder, Bederknecht, Ehbadner, Kostenbader, Pader, Stover, Stöwer, Stuber, Stüber, Stübner, Stubanator, Stupenator;

other terms for bathhouse worker, operators or owners: Badefrau, Bademagd, Balneator, Reiber;

blood-letter: Aderlasser, Flebotomarius, Fliedner, Köpfler, Lasser, Lesser, Minutor, Phlebotomarius, Schnepper, Schröpfer, Stucher, Windaus;

barber in the sense of hairdresser (many of them also serving also as healer): Baderschneider, Balbeeder, Balbierer, Balbier, Barbarius, Barbericus, Barbetonsor, Barber, Barberer, Barbier, Barbierer, Barbitonsor, Barbknecht, Barfknecht, Bartscher, Bartscherer, Bartzwicker, Friseur, Haarscherer, Scherbart, Scherer;

related terms: Bademeister, Badewärter





minstrel generel: Spielmann, Leichmann, Aufspieler, Abenteurer;

wind player: Arcubius, Balgentreter, Bälgentreter, Belgentreter, Belligentreder, Bassuner, Bläser, Blatterspieler, Bomhart, Buccinator, Fistulator, Flötner, Flötenbläser, Gellhorn, Hornblaser, Hornbläser, Hornist, Kalkant, Liticen, Organist, Pfeifer, Pieper, Posaunist, Salpista, Schalmeienspieler, Schwegler, Tauber, Trompeter, Tromter, Trumetter, Trumpter, Tubabläser, Waldhornist, Zinkenbläser, Zinkenist;

player of percussion instruments: Bungenschlager, Glockenspieler, Pauker, Schellenschläger, Schineller, Summerspieler, Tabourin, Tambour, Trommler, Zimbelspieler;

player of string instruments: Bassist, Bierfiedler, Cellospieler, Cellist, Chelista, Drehorgelspieler, Feddeler, Fidicen, Fiedler, Fidler, Geiger, Giger, Harfenspieler, Harfner, Harpfer, Harpffer, Harpator, Lautenist, Leiermann, Posaunenbläser, Quinterner, Rotter, Rottenschlager, Vedeler, Violinist;

singer: Operist, Opernsänger, Sänger;

other related terms: Instrumentista, Kantor, Kapellmeister, Musiker, Musikgraveur, Notenstecher, Organist;

music instrument maker: Balgmacher, Balgmeister, Bassunmacher, Blasbelger, Blasbalgmacher, Blasebalgmacher, Bungenmacher, Geigenbauer, Harfner, Harpfer, Harpffer, Harpator, Kunstmeister, Lautenist, Musikinstrumentenbauer, Orgelbauer, Orgeler, Orgler, Paukenmacher, Trommelmacher, Wildrufdrechsler, Wildrufmacher.




traveling entertainer generally: Drüller, Driller, Fahrender, Gaukler, Geikler, Geuchler, Gogler, Jocator, Joculator, Kogler, Loculator, Lotterer, Schausteller, Schimpfer, Trüller, Triller;

acrobat, dancer: Akrobat, Gumbelmann, Rippelreier, Seiltänzer, Springer, Tänzer;

artistic fencer and fighter: Balger, Eichmeister, Fechter, Kämpfer, Klopffechter,Schaufechter, Schirmer, Voltisierer;

sorcerer, juggler: Doppeler, Haragius, Jaufer, Jaufmann, Jongleur, Kloterer, Magus, Nigromanticus, Schwarzkünstler, Toppeler, Worfeler, Würfelspieler, Zauberer;

jester: Narr, Schelter;

fortuneteller, soothsayer: Kesselflicker, Wahrsager;

other related terms: Ballettierer, Britschenmeister, Pritschenmeister, Pritzenmeister, Schauspieler, Zirkusdirektor


       Tramps and beggars

tramp, vagabound: Circulator, Fahrenheinz, Freimann, Giler, Girator, Herumtreiber, Landfahrer, Landstörzer, Landstreicher, Ribaldus, Schnorrer, Schnurrer, Snopel, Sterzer, Störtzer, Störzer, Stromer, Vagabund;

beggar: Schnorrer, Schnurrer: Bettler, Mendicus, Pracher, Stäbler, Stabuel, Stipus.



sculptor, woodcarver, printer of woodcuts: Bildhauer, Bildhauwer, Bilderbrenner, Beldesnider, Beldensnider, Bildschneider, Bildschnitzer, Briefdrucker, Figurist, Kartenmaler, Kleinschnitzler, Plastes, Schnitzer, Schnitzker, Schnitzler, Sculptor;

book illustrator, painter: Adumbrator, Bildnismaler, Briefer, Buchmaler, Conterfehter, Conterfeiter, Conterfettner, Conterfetter, Illuminist, Künstler, Kunstmaler, Miniaturist, Nachahmer, Portraitmaler, Porträtmaler, Puppenmaler, Sumilator, Zeichner;

sign painter, enameller: Emaillierer, Feuermaler, Schilderer, Schilderhersteller;

author, writer, poet: Autor, Dichter, Poeta, Verfasser.



brother-keeper: Riffian, Bordellwirt, Bordellwirtin, Frauenwirt, Frauenwirtin, Hurenwirt;

pimp, procurer: Kuppler, Ruffian, Zuhälter;

prostitute: Dirne, Ganea, Hübscherin, Meretrix, Metze, Slune, Stockfrau




       Carriers and

       Freight haulers

freight hauler, carrier, carter, loader: Auflader, Aufschläger, Auriga, Baiulus, Ballenbinder, Bestätter, Bestetter, Börtfahrer, Bubulcus, Carrucarius, Fasszieher, Frachter, Frächter, Frachtfahrer, Führer, Fuhrmann, Fuhrunternehmer, Gerulus, Güterbestätter, Gutfertiger, Heinzeler, Heinzler, Karchelzieher, Karcher, Karrenmann, Karrer, Kärrner, Kerner, Lader, Lastträger, Leiterer, Lohnfuhrmann, Lützenbruder, Omenträger, Packer, Reihefahrer, Roller, Rosser, Rösser, Rossinger, Sämer, Säumer, Schroder, Schroter, Schröder, Schröter, Schröer, Spanner, Spediteur, Spetter, Straßenführer, Träger, Trager, Treger , Trimmer, Vector, Weneverdinger;

carrier and hauler for special products (see also there): Bornzieher, Bornzoger, Burnenzoger, Brunnträger, Kneveler, Trossknecht, Wasserträger, Wasserzieher, Zeitungsfrau, Zeitungsjunge;

storehouse administrator: Hausküper, Konsorte, Quartiersmann;

driver, coachman: Bennenfahrer, Bennenführer, Fahrer, Fahrlehrer, Gutschier, Hauderer, Kutscher, Roller, Wagenführer, Wagenmann;

post and railroad: Bahn-, Bahnangestellter, Bahnarbeiter, Bahnmeister, Botenmeister, Briefbote, Briefträger, Briefbesteller, Briefträgerin, Briefzusteller, Postbote, Schaffner, Zusteller;

other terms: Sänftener, Sänftenträger




sailer, seaman and seafarer: Seemann (plural Seemänner or Seeleute), Bootsknecht, Booßknecht, Bootsgesell, Matrose, Butenfahrer, Fahrensmann, Marinarius, Nauta, Rojgast;

shippers (ship's captain, ship owner, sometimes also seaman): Barsemeester, Flußschiffer, Schnickmann, Schiffer, Schiffmann, Schipper, Akesbaas, Bescheper, Börtschiffer, Bootsmann, Schelcher;

ship owner: Böter, Bötter, Rangschiffer, Reeder, Schiffseigner;

ship's captain: Kapitän, Capitän, Kornkapitän, Proreta, Schiffskapitän, Schiffsführer, Segner;

boatman, helmsman: Bootsmann, Booßmann, Boosmann, Kahnsmann, Rudersmann, Seßtaler, Steuermann, Stuurmann;

ship building: Aedificator navium, Architectus navium, Schutenmaker, Schiffbauer, Bode, Koggenbuwer, Bootsbauer, Botmaker (shipbuilder); Schopper, Baar, Baarer, Barer, Scepsbarer (ship's carpenter); Sackhuhn, Segelmacher (sailmaker);

ferryman: Averfahrer, Bootführer, Fährpächter, Fährmann, Ferge, Navector, Vere;

raftsman, rafting official: Aufschwemmer, Flößer, Floßmann, Holzvogt;

towing ships upstream was done by horse or human force: Berittener Schiffsschlepper, Bockfahrer, Leinreiter, Schiffstreiber, Schiffszieher, Treidler;

ship loading: Ablader, Aufdinger, Ballastböter, Ballastfahrer, Ballastschieber, Ballastschiffer, Ballastmeister, Ewerführer, Schiffsbelader, Stauer;

lighthouse keeper, official overseeing marker buoys: Backenmeister, Bakenmeister, Barsemeester, Barsemeister, Bläseur, Blüsenmeister, Blüser, Feuerwärter, Leuchtturmwärter;

other terms: Lotse, Seelotse (sea pilot); Prahmknecht, Schifferknecht (servant of a boatsman); Baas, Bestäder, Besteder (ship forwarding agent); Beurtfahrer, Beurtmann, Börtschiffer (member of shipowner's association); Bottelier, Bürgerschaffer, Proviantmeister (ship's provision); Kammersteward, Steward (steward); Schiffsmakler (shipbroker); Heuerbaas (someone who find jobs for seemen); Bierböther (river boatsman transporting mainly beer).


   Workers, Servants,




Some terms can refer to farm hands as well as to day laborers (see also Farm hands and Servants).

day laborer (Tagelöhner): Accordant, Conducticius, Deputatist, Frumwerker, Inste, Lohnarbeiter, Mietling, Söldner, Störer, Störarbeiter, Tagelöhner, Tagner, Tauner, Taunner, Thauner, Thaunner;

worker, labourer (Arbeiter): Arbeiter, Arbeiterin, Arbeitsfrau, Arbeitsmann, Boßler, Fabrikarbeiter, Hilfsarbeiter, Kärrner, Kerner, Knecht, Laborator, Lohnarbeiter, Operator, Operarius, Schaffer, Schaffmann, Schroder, Schroter, Schröder, Schröter, Schröer, Stückwerker, Wirker;

specialized worker terms: Erdarbeiter, Kanalarbeiter, Pieler;

senior worker: Vorarbeiter, Werkführer, Werkmeister;

boilerman, stoker: Brenner, Feuerer, Feurer, Heizer,Kalfakter, Kalfaktor,Ofener, Ofner, Ofengräber, Ofenheizer, Ofenwärter



       Launderers and


servant: Altjungfer, Aufträger, Aufwarter, Aufwartter, Aufwärter, Aufwirt, Bediensteter, Bedienter, Bordmagd, Diener, Faktotum, Famellus, Famulus, Famella, Familiant, Gehilfe, Helfer, Hulper, Jungmann, Knäbin, Magd, Minister, Pedell, Reiseknecht, Roback, Schalck, Schalk, Schall;

chambermaid, domestic servant, domestic maid: Bettmacherin, Cammerarius, Hausbediensteter, Hausbedienstete, Kammerbedienter, Kammerdame, Kammerdiener, Kammerjungfer, Kammerlakai,Kämmerling, Kammermädchen, Kammerportier, Kammerzofe, Lakai, Schleußerin, Wirtschafterin, Zimmermädchen, Zofe;

chamberlain, senior domestic servant: Altfrau, Altfrouwe, Ausgeberin, Beschließerin, Hausmann, Kammerherr, Kammerjunker;

nanny, governess: Geraria, Kinderfräulein, Kinderfrau, Kindermädchen, Kindermagd;

launderer, cleaner, ironer: Aufwartefrau, Aufwartemädchen, Biegler, Bügler, Fensterputzer, Lavandarius, Lutorissa, Putzfrau, Raumpflegerin, Reinmachefrau, Wäscher, Waschmagd, Zugeherin, Zugehfrau;

caretaker: Hausmeister, Kalfakter, Kalfaktor, Pedell;

chimneysweep (Schornsteinfeger): Feuermäuerkehrer, Hellefeger, Kaminfeger, Kaminkehrer, Kemmetfeger, Kenderkehrer, Kimmichkehrer, Kümichkehrer, Kümmichkehrer, Schlotfeger, Schornsteinfeger, Schornsteinreiniger;

street sweeper, privy cleaner, sewer cleaner: Abortfeger, Abtrittfeger, Abtrittreiniger, Abtrittsreiniger, Austräger, Bachfeger, Bachstecker, Cloacarius, Goldgräber, Heimlichkeitsfeger, Kehrichtlader, Kehrichträumer, Kerselmann, Kloakenreiniger, Nachtkönig, Nachtmeister, Schüttmeister, Scoparius, Sekretfeger, Sekretgraber, Straßenfeger, Straßenkehrer, Straßenreiniger;

well cleaner: Bornfeger, Brunnenreiniger;

dustman, trash collector: Aschefahrer, Aschenfahrer, Müllmann, Müllfahrer



Serf, vassal, half free laborer:

Affidat, Armknecht, Burgmann, Eigenmann, Fröhner, Frönder, Fröner, Leibeigener, Parschalk, Schalk, Smerde, Unfreier, Untertan, Vasall, Vassal, Wildfang, Zmurde




       Church professions

parish priest, pastor, cleric, clergyman: Antistes, Archidiakon, Archidiaconus, Burparrherr, Burparherr, Clericus, Geistlicher, Kleriker, Ortsgeistlicher, Parochus, Pastor, Pastor loci, Pastor primarius, Pfarrer, Plebanus, Priester, Sacrifuculus, Substitut;

minister, chaplain, curate, viace, assistant priest: Altarista, Antistes, Capellanus, Curator, Feldkaplan, Feldprediger, Hilfsgeistlicher, Kaplan, Kurator, Leutpriester, Minister, Sallanus, Seelsorger, Statthalter, Vikar;

bishop and other senior priests: Archidiaconus, Archidiakon, Bischof, Decanus, Dekan, Domherr, Domkapitular, Episcopus, Kichenfürst, Obermann, Oberpfarrer, Pontifex, Prälat, Praepositus, Superintendent, Thumbherr;

administrator of church property, church paymaster, church treasurer: Heiligenpfleger, Hofmeister, Hoffmeister, Kirchenbeter, Kastenknecht, Kastenmeister, Kirchenmeyer, Kirchenprovisor, Kirchschaffner, Kornprobst, Propst , Probst, Verweser;

beadle, deacon: Armendiener, Bettelvogt, Bodel, Kirchendiener, Oberhelfer;

monks, nuns, abbots and other clerics in a monastry: Abadissa, Abatissa, Äbtin, Äbtissin, Abass, Abt, Barfüßer, Eremit, Eremita, Johanniter, Joncferen, Klausner, Mandrita, Mönch, Nonne, Ordensschwestern, Zeller;

pilgrim: Jacobsbruder, Pilger, Reiser, Waller;

rabbi: Oberrabbiner, Rabbiner;

related terms: Aedilis, Amtsbruder, Amtsvogt, Antistes, Expectant, Gotzenträger, Götzenträger, Kantor, Kanzelredner, Kirchencensor, Kirchenlehrer, Kirchmeier, Krippenmacher, Visitator, Zensor


       Ecclesiastical offices

sexton, verger, bellringer: Aedituus, Altarist, Altarmann, Aufermann, Auffermann, Beiermann, Beirmann, Campanarius, Coster, Glöckner, Kirchenknecht, Kircher, Kirchmeister, Kirchner, Klöckner, Koster, Köster, Koesterius, Küster, Küsterin, Läuter, Mesner, Messner, Offermann, Opfermann, Oppermann, Organist, Pulsant, Sakristan, Segristanus, Siegrist, Sigrist, Türmer;

church juryman: Altarmann, Altarmeister, Kirchgeschworener, Kirchengeschworener, Kirchenjurate, Kirchenschöffe;

chairman and other members of the church council, church elder: Kirchenrat, Kirchenrath, Kirchenvater, Kirchenvogt, Kirchenvorsteher, Kirchspielshauptmann, Kirchspielsrichter, Kirchvater, Stillstände;

other honorary offices at the church: Kirchenpfleger, Kirchenbuchführer;

see also Musicians.


       Funeral offices

       and professions

gravedigger, undertaker, cemetery caretaker: Fossarius, Fossor, Friedhofswärter, Heimbürge, Kuhlengräber, Leichenbesorger, Leichenbestatter, Pollinctor, Sargträger, Totenausleger, Totengräber, Todtengräber, Totenmann, Träger, Trager, Treger, Vespillo;

person who invites to a funeral: Klagansager, Gaffelbote, Leichenbitter, Leichenlader.


    Innkeepers and Cooks

innkeeper (including proprietor): Aubergier, Aubergist, Baas, Cauno, Gassenwirt, Gastwirt, Hospes, Hospinianus, Kastellein, Kneipenwirt, Kneipwirt, Kneipwirth, Kretschmer, Kretzschmar, Kretschner, Kroeger, Krogmann, Krugelmann, Krugmann, Krüger, Leitgeb, Oeconom, Oekonom, Schankwirt, Schankwirth, Schenck, Schenckwirt, Schenckwirth, Schenk, Schenkwirt, Schenkwirth, Schencker, Schenker, Schlafbaas, Speisewirth, Stubenmeister, Tabagist, Taferner, Taverner, Wirt, Wirth, Würth, Würth, Wyrt, Zapfer;

innkeeper (including proprietor) where the term indicate the kind of beverages he serve: Bierschenk, Bierschenker, Bierzapfer, Brandweinschenker, Branntweinschenker, Broihankrüger, Braukrüger, Cafetier, Cafetierer, Cerevisiarius, Oenopola, Weinführer, Weingeber, Weinknecht, Weinschenk, Weinschenker, Weinschenck, Weinschencker, Weinwirt, Weinzapf, Zapfenwirt, Zapfenwirth, Zythepsa;

waiter: Aufwarter, Aufwartter, Aufwirt, Butteler, Caniparius, Credenzer, Kellner, Schankkellner, Schencker, Schenker;

cook, chef: Architriclinus, Assator, Beischenk, Bonkoch, Cocus, Coqua, Coquus, Dapifer, Garbrader, Garcifer, Garkoch, Koch, Köchin, Küchenmeister, Küchenschreiber, Popinarius, Promus, Speisemeister, Traiteur, Trakteur, Truchseß.


    Teaching occupations

school principal: Ludirektor, Rektor, Rektorin, Schulleiter, Schulleiterin;

teacher: Adjuvant, Anwiser, Behelfer, Behelver, Bubenmeister, Grammaticus, Kindererzieherin, Lehrer, Linguist, Ludimoderator, Magister, Praeceptor, Schuldiener, Schulgehilfe, Schullehrer, Schulhalter, Schulmeister, Schulsschwester, Sprachlehrer, Sprachmeister, Spragmeister;

pupil, student, schoolboy: Alumnus, Beflissener, Discipulus, Schüler, Schuljunge, Schulknabe, Schulmädel, Schulmädchen, Student, Tiro, Zögling;

scholar and other old educated occupations: Arithmeticus, Baccalaureus, Gelehrter, Rechenmeister







Most of the terms for administrators were quite comprehensive terms; the meaning of the terms often got more diverse in time, e.g. Meier started from an administrator of a large farm but later also farmers and tenants were called Meier.

Schultheiß, Schulz (appointed village mayor, tax collector for the ruler): Scholt, Scholte, Scholta, Scholtka, Scholtke, Scholtheiß, Scholz, Scholze, Schult, Schulte , Schulten, Schuldt, Schultheiß, Schulz, Schulz, Schultz, Schultze, Schulzke, Scultetus, Unterschultheiss; many combinations with Schulz etc.;

Meier (administrator of a large farm, farmer, tenant): Meier, Meyer, Maier, Mayer, Mayr; many combinations with Meier etc.;

Hoffmann, Hofmeister (administrator of a large farm like a manor): Amtshofmeister, Hofmann, Hoffmann, Hafemann, Havemann, Hofmeister, Hoffmeister;

Vogt (administrator, representative of the ruler or the manor, bailiff, sheriff): Ackervogt, Bauvogt, Burgvogt, Eckervogt, Faith, Fath, Fauth, Feut, Holzvogt, Hühnervogt, Landvogt, Obervogt, Untervogt, Vaagd, Vagt, Vaugt, Vogt, Vögtle, Voigt, Voogt, Voot;

Graf (high standing royal administrator, appointed village mayor): Deichgraf, Graf, Grebe, Greve, Holzgraf, Holzgrefe, Salzgraf, Waldgrebe, Wittgrefe, Zentgraf;

Schaffner (administrator, supervisor): Schaffer, Schaffner, Scheffner;

Kastner, Kästner (administrator and receiver of revenues): Castner, Kastenkeller, Kastenknecht, Kastenmeier, Kastenmeister, Kastner, Kästner, Kestner, Köstner;

Keller, Kellner (administrator for the store room): Amtskeller, Keller, Kellermann, Kellerherr, Kellermeier, Kellner;

Scheuner, Stadelmann (administrator for the store room and tax collector): Scheuner, Scheunemann, Scheuermann, Scheurmeier, Schünemann, Schürmann, Schünemeier, Schürmeier, Stadelmaier, Stadelmann;

Latin terms for administrators: Administrator, Architriclinus, Claviger, Dispensator, Faktor, Majordomus, Massarius, Praefectus, Praetor, Promocondus, Villicus;

other terms for administrators see other officials.



terms for officials with the word Amt (office): Ammann, Amtherr, Amtleute, Amtmann, Amtsasse, Amtssasse, Amtshauptmann, Amtsinhaber, Amtskeller, Amtsmeister, Amtsschreiber, Amtsverwalter, Amtsverweser, Beamter, Beamtin, Gemeindeammann, Kanzleibeamter, Regierungsbeamter, Stadtbeamter;

other terms for administrator, governor (see also administrators): Bannerherr, Burgsasse, Castellan, Dorfmann, Dörfer, Dörper, Drost, Kabinettmeister, Kastellan, Landrat, Pfleger, Schloßaufseher, Statthalter, Verwalter, Verweser;

other officials: Ambasiator, Ambassator, Besucher, Botschafter, Federbedienter, Hofagent, Hoffaktor, Hofmarschall, Official, Ratsschenker, Supan


       Messengers and


terms for (court, office) messengers, clerks and police servants: Amtsbüttel, Amtsdiener, Amtsscherge, Amtsknecht, Amtspedell, Anbieter, Angriffsdiener, Apparitor, Ausklinger, Ausklingler, Banning, Bedellus, Bidellus, Bruchvoigt, Bruchvogt, Brüchvogt, Büttel, Butteler, Fänger, Fron, Frohn, Frohne, Fröhner, Geißelträger, Gerichtsdiener, Häscher, Kiepenmann, Lictoris, Lictor, Stöcker, Stockmeister;

messenger terms with and from the word Bote (messenger): Amtsbote, Bade, Bode, Bote, Bothe, Bott, Botengänger, Botenläufer, Bottmeister, Dienstbote, Eilbote, Freibote, Fronbote, Gerichtsbote, Kanzleibote, Pfänder, Renteibote, Sendbote, Silberbote, Stadtbote, Steuerbote;

messenger terms with and from the word Reiter (rider): Ausreuter, Ausreiter, Landreiter, Reitender, Spettreiter;

other terms for messenger: Ausgeher, Baiulus, Ehehalt, Gerulus, Nuntius, Tabellarius, Tabellio;

other terms for clerks and government servants, bailiffs (no messenger): Abschreiber, Adjunkt, Amanuensis, Ambachtknecht, Ambachtschriver, Amtsdiener, Amtsschreiber, Bannere, Bodel, Copist, Copiist, Einspanner, Hoffron, Hoffrohne, Kanzleidiener, Kanzleischreiber, Kanzleivorsteher, Kanzlist, Klerk, Kopist, Kopiist, Prachervogt, Ratsdiener, Rathsdiener, Rathsschreibe, Ratsschreibe, Ratsschreiber, Schreiber, Schreibmeist, Schryffeyner, Scriba, Seigersteller, Scharwächter, Skribent, Scriniarius, Stadtdiener, Stadtknecht, Stadtschreiber, Türwärter;

public crier and messenger: Ausrufer, Ausscheller, Exclamator, Kohlvogt, Praeco, Röpe, Röper;

secretaries and office staff: Büroangestellter, Bürochef, Bürovorsteher, Schriftführer, Sekretär





Most judge and jurymen terms refer to honorary (elected or appointed) judges and jurymen:

terms for judges and justices with Richter (judge): Amtsrichter, Bannrichter, Bauernrichter, Bauerrichter, Burrichter, Feldrichter, Friedensrichter, Hofrichter, Holzrichter, Jugendrichter, Landrichter, Lokalrichter, Ortsrichter, Richter, Schiedsrichter, Stadtrichter, Stetrichter, Stuhlrichter;

other terms for judges: Amtmann, Amtsgerichtsrat, Amtsgograf, Amtsgogräfe, Amtsrat, Amtsrath, Amtsvogt, Asega, Assessor, Butenrechtsmann, Disceptator, Freigraf, Stabhalter, Stabherr, Stadtvogt, Stillfauth, Stuhlherr, Tschudi, Tschudy, Villicus, Witjas;

(lay) jurymen (recent basic terms Schöffe, Geschworener) and members of local courts: Achter, Achtmann, Achtsmann, Amtsschöffe, Amtsschöppe, Arbiter, Auditor, Beisitzer, Beysitzer, Feldgeschworener, Geschworener, Rachimburge, Ratsfreund, Ratsgeselle, Redner, Scabinus, Schiedsverwandter, Schöffe, Schöffenmeister, Schöpe;

notary, advocate, attorney, lawyer: Advokat, Advocatus, Afkaat, öffentlicher Agent, Amtsanwalt, Amtskultator, Anwalt, Apologete, Auditor, Auditeur, Ausfauth, Iudex, Jurist, Klagbote, Klagführer, Kronanwalt, Notar, Notararius, Rechtsanwalt, Rechtsgelehrter;

servant, clerks at courts: Actuarius, Aktuar, Amtsknecht, Amtspedell, Bannwart, Kammerlakai, Nachgangsschreiber, Stabskeller, Stuhlschreiber, Weibel;

related terms: Besserer, Gemeindeammann, Justizbeamter, Rechtsagent, Rechtsbeflissener, Rechtsbeistand, Rechtspfleger, Sequester;

church juryman see Church


       Executioners and


executioner: Angstmann, Büttel, Carnifex, Folterer, Folterknecht, Generalgewaltiger, Henker, Kasperer, Profos, Profoß, Quaestionarius, Scharfrichter, Züchtiger;

flayer, renderer, knacker, skinner: Abdecker, Abstreifer, Carnifex, Deglubitor, Excoriator, Feldmeister, Felllmann, Freiknecht, Füller, Kafiller, Kaltschlächter, Kaviller, Racker, Scharfrichterknecht, Schinder, Schindler, Schinner, Schoband, Seifensieder, Smigarius, Wasenmeister.



jailer, gaoler, turnkey of a prison: Amtspförtner, Arrestantenaufwärter, Arrestdiener , Eisenmeister, Ergastularius, Gefängniswärter, Kerkermeister, Schanzenmeister, Schlegel, Stöcker, Stockmeister, Turmvader, Turmvater;

gatekeeper: Beschließer, Burgschließer, Burgschluter, Claustrarius, Einlasser, Ostiarius, Pfortmann, Pförtner, Schließer, Schlieter, Schlüter, Torhüter, Tormann, Torwächter, Torwart, Torwärter, Türwärter, Valvarius;

guard, foreman, overseer, watchman, security guard: Arcubius, Aufpasser, Aufseher, Beiwächter, Buccinator, Büchsenherr, Büchsenmann, Büchsenschütze, Büchsenmeister, Bussenschutte, Custos, Guardianus, Hausmann, Hornblaser, Hornbläser, Speculator, Türmer, Turmwächter, Vigilarius, Vorwarer, Wächter, Wachtgänger, Wärter;

watchman in charge of fields and field borders: Bannwart, Feldaufseher, Feldhüter, Feldschütz, Fluhr, Flurer, Flurschütz, Kühlmann, Pfänder, Steiner;

night watchman: Nachtwächter, Rateler, Scharwächter, Schlupwächter;

road watchman: Wegewarter, Wegmeister;

fire fighter: Brandmeister, Feuerwehrmann;

member of the city militia: Bürgerkapitän, Bürgerleutnant, Bürgerschütze, Bürgertambour



policemen: Biesejager, Feldreiter, Gendarm, Konstabler, Meldemeister, Polizeibeamter, Polizist, Wachtmeister, Xurterius;

other related terms: Hoister, Polizeidiener, Rumormeister, Scherge, Waldreiter;

mounted policeman and messenger: Ausreuter, Ausreiter, Landreiter



Amtsvormund, Beschirmer, Curand, Curator, Gerhab, Kurator, Mundeburdus, Muntbor, Pfleger, Provisor puerorum, Träger, Trager, Treger, Tutor, Vogt, Vormund, Voerradesmann, Waisenpfleger, Wärter



criminals: Arrestant, Arresthäusler, Betrüger, Brandstifter, Dieb, Freibeuter, Kindsmöderin, Mörder, Schinder, Schinner, Schwindler, Straßenräuber, Verbrecher, Wegelagerer;

see also Foresters and Hunters, Traveling entertainers.


    Tax and money


       Calibrators and


calibrator, sealer, adjuster, weighmaster: Aicher, Aichmeister, Eichbeamter, Eicher, Eichmeister, Libripens, Messer, Messor, Metator, Pensator, Sinner, Ungelder, Ungeldherr, Waagemeister, Weinmesser, Weinvisierer, Zeichenmeister;

grain measurer: Kornmesser, Motter, Mütter;

valuer, examiner (Taxator, Prüfer): Achtmann, Achtsmann, Geschaumeister, Kurer, Schauer, Schaur, Schaumeister, Taxator, Schätzer,Visierer


       Tax and customs


receiver of revenues, tax inspector, tax assessor, tax official, tax collector (Steuereinnehmer): Accisecollektor, Accisedirektor, Accisenschreiber, Aerarius praefectus, Aerarius quastor, Aksiseher, Akzessist, Akziseeinnehmer, Akziseherr, Akzisevogt, Amtscommissarius, Amtsschosser, Amtsschösser, Aufschläger, Baumeister, Bedesetzer, Beedheber, Collector, Consumtionsschreiber, Einnehmer, Einsäckler, Exactor, Fiskal, Fiskalat, Inbursator, Ingrossist, Kammermeister, Licentmeister, Momboir, Rentmeister, Salzaufleger, Salzsteuereinnehmer, Schatter, Schattmann, Schösser, Schosserheber, Steuerbeamter, Steuerbeamtin, Steuereinnehmer, Steuereintreiber, Steuerheber, Steuerherr, Steuerverwalter, Tabaksteuereinnehmer, Tegtmaier, Tegtmayer, Tegtmeier, Tegtmeyer, Ungelder, Ungeldherr, Yngwünner;

tax collector and officials with terms relating to grain (Korn, Kasten, Frucht, Keller), granary administrator: Amtskeller, Castner, Fruchtschreiber, Kastenkeller, Kastenknecht, Kastenmeier, Kastenmeister, Kastner, Kästner, Kellner, Kestner, Körner, Köstner, Kornhausverwalter, Kornmann, Kornmeister, Säckelmeister, Stadler;

treasurer (Kämmerer), paymaster (Zahlmeister): Auszahler, Ebursator, Granarius, Kammerbeamter, Kämmerer, Rechenmeister, Rechnungsbeamter, Rechnungsführer, Reitmeister, Rendant, Rentamtmann, Repositor, Saccelarius, Säckelmeister, Säckler, Schatzmann, Schatzmeister, Seckler, Sekelmeister, Trissler, Weddeschreiber, Zahlmeister;

toll collector, customs officer, custom clerk: Barrierenpächter, Bäumer, Baumpächter, Baumschließer, Baumschreiber, Baumwärter, Beseher, Billeter, Brückenzoller, Brucker, Bruckner, Brückner, Brückenknecht, Brückenschreiber, Chausseegeldeinnehmer, Einpfenniger, Geleitseinnehmer, Geleitsmann, Mautner, Salzfüller, Salzmutter, Salzmütter, Torschreiber, Zollbeamter, Zolleinnehmer, Zöller, Zoller, Zollheber, Zollfahnder, Zollinspektor, Zollmeister, Zöllner, Zollschreiber;

see also Administrators, Messengers and Clerks


       Moneylender and


moneylender, banker, moneychanger (Geldwechlser, Bakier, Geldverleiher): Argentarius, Bancharius, Bankherr, Bankier, Banquier, Cambiator, Campsor, Commutator, Geldleiher, Geldverleiher, Geldwechsler, Karbatsch, Kartzin, Kauwarz, Lampart, Lumpart, Pfandleiher, Schatzmann, Schuldenbote, Trapezeta, Verleiher, Verleyher, Wechselherr, Wechsler;

usurer (Wucherer): Fucker, Fuckerer, Kawertin, Usurarius, Wucherer, Zinsnehmer, Zinswucherer;

someone who mints coins, mint inspector: Eisenhalter, Münzaufseher, Münzer, Münzmeister, Münzpräger, Münzprüfer, Münzschneider, Munzschroter, Nummularius, Schroder, Schroter, Schröder, Schröter, Schröer, Wardein;

counterfeiter of coins: Kipp, Kipper, Münzfälscher, Münzverfälscher, Wipper


    Military professions

rider, cavalry: Berittener, Dragoner, Eques, Equester, Reisiger, Reiter, Reuter, Ritter, Rittmeister, Traguner, Wachtmeister;

foot soldier: Büchsen, Carbiner, Fußknecht, Trabant, Musketier;

flagbearer, standard-bearer: Bannerträger, Cornet, Cornett, Fähndrich, Fähnrich, Fahnenträger, Fehnrich, Fenner, Kornett, Venner;

rifleman, gunner, artillery: Artilleriebedienter, Artillerist, Artilleriesoldat, Artillerieknecht, Artillerieschmied, Bewaffneter, Bombardier, Bombardarius, Bombarbista, Büchsenschütze, Büchsenspanner, Canonier, Caribinier, Chasseur, Jäger, Konstabler, Schütze, Sclopetarius, Stückknecht;

other military ranks: Adjutant, Admiral, Aedilis, Bootsmann, Feldmarschall, Feldwaibel, Feldwebel, Feldweibel, Gefreiter, Leutnant, Hauptmann, Houbetman, Oberfeldwebel, Oberst, Stabsfeldwebel, Stabskapitän, Unterfeldwebel, Unteroffizier, Weibel;

sling and catapult gunner and maker: Bleidner, Blidenmacher, Blidenmeester, Schleuderer, Schleuderschütze;

archer, bowman: Balistarius, Bogenschütze;

lancer, sword fighter: Lanzenreiter, Schwert, Schwerdtner, Schwertner, Schwertfechter, Stecher, Ulan;

mercenaries, recruiter, conscripts: Anreißer, Anwerber, Einberufener, Freier Knecht, Kriegsknecht, Musterschreiber, Söldner, Werber;

military police, guard: Arcier, Exempt, Feldgendarm, Feldjäger, Gardesoldat, Wachsoldat, Wachtsoldat;

rear troops, quartermaster, supply: Billardier, Billetier, Billiter, Billetierer, Fourier, Hurenwaibel, Hurenweibel, Knapphans, Marketender, Puer exercitus, Rumormeister, Troßbube, Trossknecht, Zeltknecht, Zeugwart;

other military terms: beurlaubter Soldat, Feldkaplan, Feldprediger, Flieger, Generalgewaltiger, Miles, Profoß, Schirrmeister, Soldat, Stockjunge, Wagenmeister, Wehrmann




       Mayors and


mayor: Altbürgermeister, Anschaffer, Bauermeister, Bauernmeister, Bauernschulze, Bauervogt, Bauernvogt, Borgmeister, Borgemeister, Borgermeister, Bürgermeister, Burmeister, Buhrmeister, Burmester, Buhrmester, Consiliarius, Dorfschulze, Freischulze, Magister civium, Praetor, Scholz (see also Verwalter);

deputy mayor: Adjunkt, Beigeordneter, Reidemeister, Riedemeister, Vizebuergermeister;

councilman: Achtbürger, Achtmann, Achtsmann, Aldermann, Ausgänger, Billetsherr, Bürgerwort, Bürgerworthalter, Consiliarius, Deputatist auf dem Amt, Rathsherr, Ratsherr, Rathsmitglied, Ratsmitglied, Rathsverwandter, Ratsverwandter, es Raths, des Rats, Ratsfreund, Ratsgeselle, Reidemeister, Riedemeister, Schöffe, Schöpe, Stuhlherr, Unzüchter, Viermann, Vierrath, Viertelmeister, Worthalter;

spokesman: Achtmann, Achtsmann, Redner, Talemann.


       Citizen terms

citizen (in towns and cities): Altbürger, Ausbürger, Ausmann, Außenbürger, Börger, Bürger, Großerbe, Neubürger, Pfahlbürger;

other terms for inhabitants of towns and cities: Beisass, Beisasse, Fenner, Gadamer, Gademer, Schutzverwandter, Stadtbewohner, Venner;

village people having co-operative rights in common lands and / or eligible for the village lay court and administration: Gemeindsmann, Innwohner, Inwohner, Nachbar, Umsesse;

village people not having rights in common lands and not eligible for the village lay court and administration: Beisass, Beisasse, Beisitzer, Beiwohner, Beysass, Beysasse, Beysitzer, Biwohner, Infrau, Inmann, Insgesessener;

 terms for village (and sometimes town) inhabitants showing where they live: Anlieger, Anrainer, Anwender, Ausmärker, Brenker, Butenwohner, Wröcherr, Wröherr;

elected administrator of common lands (in villages): Allmendherr, Allmendsherr, Allmendpfleger, Allmendsvogt, Alpleiter, Alpmeister, Alpvogt;

other terms (not distiguishing between villages and town, not showing rights and duties): Bannleute, Kostgänger, Obdachloser, Ortsbewohner;

migration terms: Auswanderer, Einwanderer, Flüchtling, Fremder, Neuwohner, Umsiedler;

almoner, overseer of welfare, head of poorhouse: Almosenpfleger, Almosensammler, Armendiener, Armenpfleger, Armenkrankenwärter, Armenvogt, Armenhausvater, Armenkollekteur, Armendeche, Biesejager, Brachervogt, Spendmeister;

owner of something: Eigenthümer, Eigentümer, Fabrikbesitzer, Inhaber, Stättenbesitzer, Schloßbesitzer, Schloßherr;

owning (almost) nothing: Almosenempfänger, Alumnus, Armer, Mittelloser, Unvermögender;

terms describing the building where someone lives (see also Cottager): Afterhäurer, Burgsasse, Hausgenosse, Inlieger, Inligger.



lord of a castle, earls: Burgherr, Burggraf, Burggravius, Burgmann, Castrensis, Comes, Comes palatinus, Graf;

knight: Knappe, Reichsritter, Ritter, Schwertdegen;

other terms for noblemen: Adliger, Adlige, Baron, Freiherr, Fürst, Herzog, Junker, Kaiser, König, Liber baro, Viztum;

courtier: Aulicus, Hofmann, Hoffmann, Höfling









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